Received date: November 25, 2011; Accepted date: December 19, 2011; Published date: December 21, 2011
Citation: Sai YRKM, Siva Kishore N, Dattatreya A, Anand SY, Sridhari G (2011) A Review on Biotechnology and Its Commercial and Industrial Applications. J Biotechnol Biomaterial 1:121. doi:10.4172/2155-952X.1000121
Copyright: © 2011 Sai YRKM, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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This review states the applications of biology in the technical way. More complex statement can be given since in these days the applications of the biotechnology are developing and very vastly implementing logical studies in present trends. Here in this review we can discuss briefly about the applications and the areas where biotechnology is at utmost level of importance, these applications include three major wings of diffractive studies in biotechnology. Biomaterials are exactly termed as the Allograft, Auto-graft, and Xenograft. Genetic engineering is a major study appended to rule the living being future. The bio-availability of the products from MO’s useful in bioprocesses all around in pharmaceuticals, breweries, small scale industries etc., were said to be enlightened by biotechnological applications.
Biotechnology; Genetic Engineering; Bioprocessing Techniques; Biomaterials
Contrary to its name, biotechnology is not a single technology. Rather it is a group of technologies that share two (common) characteristics working with living cells and their molecules and having a wide range of practice uses that can improve our lives.
Biotechnology can be broadly defined as “using organisms or their products for commercial purposes.” As such, (traditional) biotechnology has been practices since the beginning of records history. Baking bread, brewing alcoholic beverages, and breeding food crops or domestic animals were the early days’ biotechnology application. But recent developments in molecular biology have given biotechnology new meaning, new prominence, and new potential. It is now Modern biotechnology that has captured the attention of the public. Modern biotechnology can have a dramatic effect on the world economy and society.
Biotechnology of biomaterials is use of metals and chemicals as Biomaterials and bio-soft-materials (bio-nano-composites) like Hydroxyapatite, Zirconia, Alumina  used in the dental implants, in turn the production of Hydroxyapatite from garden snail shell (Helix Aspersa) is also an amazing application of biotechnology . Preceding to this Titanium in a process, induces osteoblastic bone marrow stem cells differentiation , silicone dispersions in the manufacture of murine ventricular inflating for the langendorff heart grounding , use of Glycine betaine as an effective compatible solute is which maintains fluidity of membranes and protects the biological structure of the organisms  under stress is another criteria of biotechnological application. A more recent and promising exploitation of membrane Transglutaminase (mTG) is related to the production of the so-called “Bioplastics” both biodegradable and edible . Development of certain technologies like Response Surface Method (RSM) has made easier optimization of lipase mediated catalytic activity  and critical extraction parameters for Anthocyanin from Solanum melongena  and It also made easier for the Mycoprotein production from Fauna like Fusarium venenatum ATCC 20334 . In spite of all these application of Biomaterials there were novel methods being developed for the voidance of microbial adhesion , as if creation is not only the criteria of biotechnology but also the protection of the created is also a part, and thus the protection is through the same microbial community which produces microbial bio-surfactants.
Bioactive glass (BAG) S53P4 is a bone bonding biomaterial, osteoconductive and osteostimulative bone substitute with proven antibacterial properties, which is a result and innovative thought of Lindfors NC. (2011). BAG S53P4 was used in treatment of an infected comminuted olecranon fracture. This substitution was monitored and followed up which implied no re-infection .
Dragging all these aside nanoparticles have been an imminent issue in the field of biotechnology (Nanotechnology), their interference with the Quantum dots. To have a brief explanation about the quantum dots, a quantum dot is a portion of matter (e.g. semiconductor) whose excitons are confined in all three spatial dimensions. Consequently, such materials have electronic properties intermediate between those of bulk semiconductors and those of discrete molecules [12-14]. They were discovered at the beginning of the 1980s by Alexei Ekimov et al. . in a glass matrix and by Louis E. Brus in colloidal solutions. The term “quantum dot” was coined by Mark Reed et al. . Researchers have studied quantum dots in transistors, solar cells, LEDs, and diode lasers. They have also investigated quantum dots as agents for medical imaging and hope to use them as qubits. Preparation of Biocompatible Quaternized Chitosan bio-nano-particles Encapsulating CdS Quantum Dots has been formulized . Today Nanomaterials have been designed for a variety of biomedical and biotechnological applications, these Nanoparticles  or nanoporous sol- gel particles  function- alized with organic groups can be used as biomarkers, tracer, and drug delivery systems with even all-in-one functionalities .
Genetic engineering is the process of transferring individual genes between organisms or modifying the genes in an organism to remove or add a desired trait or characteristic. Examples of genetic engineering are described later in this document. Through genetic engineering, genetically modified crops or organisms are formed. These GM crops or GMOs are used to produce biotech-derived foods. It is this specific type of modern biotechnology, genetic engineering that seems to generate the most attention and concern by consumers and consumer groups. What is interesting is that modern biotechnology is far more precise than traditional forms of biotechnology and so is viewed by some as being far safer.
In silico analysis and emphasis’ have been in current research as the comparative insilico analysis and insilico Sequence analysis of ascorbate peroxidase protein sequences from different plant species  and glycine betaine biosynthesis genes in Bacillus subtilis  were studied respectively. In silico sequence analysis revealed that the GbsA and GbsB sequences of B. subtilis were conserved in many eubacteria. The studies in the findings of the present study may be useful for designing degenerate primers or probes specific for APX and possibly presents the first line of defense amongst all the Ascorbate PeroXidase isoforms involved in the cellular antioxidant defense pathway, during exposure to abiotic stresses. a discrete event based stochastic modeling approach for studying the molecular dynamics of cells has been proposed based on the simulation methodology and present the mathematical formalism underlying the in silico system .
Many gene therapies have been reported during last decade, genetic variations and epigenetic patterns in autoimmunity  and in Developmental Disorders like ADHD and Endophenotypes  have been noted. Epigenetic patterns may have cumulative effects on disease progression and outcome and should therefore be investigated together.
ex-vivo gene transfer technology is also an appended study from that of genetic engineering; this might be through any means of ways like, vector based transfer systems, virus vector based transfer systems and etc. for instance, High efficiency ex-vivo gene transfer to primary murine b-cells using plasmid or viral vectors . Specified gene therapy targeting on LDL cholesterol  and CD47- a tissue based therapeutic targeting  has come into an existence due to an astounding debut of gene transfer technique which is a result of biotechnology.
One of the exploring technique in biotechnology is the Metabolite Profiling and Gene Expression, it is now more widely being applied to catalogue all (or most of) the biochemical’s associated with an organism’s metabolism (or metabolome) . Metabolic profiling parallels techniques measuring changes in gene expression such as 2-D gel  and mass spectrometric protein profiling , serial analysis of gene expression , and cDNA microarray analysis . Both the metabolic and gene expression approaches address the phenotypic plasticity of a particular organism but from different perspectives. There was a registered study on Streptomyces tenjimariensis’s,  and many other organisms.
Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the primary cause of cervical, anal, vulvar, vaginal and penile cancers as well as genital warts. Over 120 types of HPV have been isolated with more than 40 of these types infecting the epithelial lining of the anal and genital tracts . The HPV vaccines as we came across, says that they were recombinant and genetically prepared vaccines , to date, two prophylactic HPV vaccines are currently available in the Canadian market namely Gardasil® and Cervarix®. Gardasil, (approved in Canada July 2006) is Merck’s quadrivalent HPV recombinant vaccine against HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18. Gardasil® is approved for both men and women aged 9 to 26 years of age . On the other hand, Cervarix (approved in Canada February 2010) is GlaxoSmithKline bivalent HPV recombinant vaccine against HPV types 16 and 18. Cervarix ® is approved for women aged 10 to 25 years of age and has showed a safety profile in women aged 15 to 55 years of age. the availability of quadrivalent and bivalent prophylactic HPV vaccines represents the best hope for preventing most cases of cervical cancer and HPV-associated diseases . However, the reduction in the economic burden caused by HPV screening is yet to be determined.
In Bioprocesses like biochemical processes, maximum expenditure (50%) of the experiment lies in down streaming process , in the phenomenon of reduction in the time and primary recovery of the down streaming process, many methods have been developing where the right and effective strain is important to be chosen for the mass and qualitative production, for instance IMB2 was found to be the best Xylitol producer among the IMB yeast, when considering the production of Xylitol by the thermo tolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus IMB Strains . Similarly, for the better extraction itself in some of the processes a indicator test like Dehydrogenase test for Monitoring the Growth of Streptomyces venezuelae in a nutrient rich medium which eventually lead to a large or small scale production of a potential antibiotic named Jadomycin (anti-carcinogenic cytotoxicity) in stated study . Mean while, process-specific parameters affect product recovery flux and areas within the process where optimization can be performed to increase throughput and decrease cost. Thus a cohort study on penicillin production had been conducted with a various factors differentiating in those studies. One of the studies was on sterilization time . The coherent study has been conducted in relation to the properties of the influencing factors in the process of the production.
One of the earnest methodologies in the Bioprocessing techniques is Response Surface Methodology (RSM) it has many applications in the modern Processing units and studies. It can make easier optimization of Production of various Proteins like Mycoproteins , Enzymes (= Protein)  and other compounds like pigments or more limpidly Flavonoids . In contrast to these, Non-molecular systems biology is aimed at the prediction of the functional features of bio-systems/ biotechniques on the basis of known cell proteomes and interactomes . This beautiful implementation leads to the outgrowth of biotechnology in the field of bio-processing and biotechnical areas.
The field of Bioprocessing studies has lead to a brother wing from the actual stream and this lead to the development of biotechnical studies and its application, for instance, the Rapid detection of H. pylori strains by PCR-Sequencing  is one of the examples for the route into technical aspects in biology.
In even more advanced stage an awareness study or more keenly a unique study type was held to determine the microbial population in an air-conditioned space of a very inglorious scientific museum , which states the present position of the biotechnological advancements in the bio-based processes.
Cadmium can cause bone demineralization, either through direct bone damage or indirectly as a result of renal dysfunction . Trace metals such as Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Cr and as are potential bio-accumulative toxins in the production system of milk and dairy products . Cadmium may enter the body through food, water, air or absorption through the skin however food and smoking are the main source of exposure in the non-occupationally exposed population . A novel absorption-transmission based, miniaturized fiber optic biosensor has been developed for the detection of cadmium in milk . In contrast to the above, The application of nano-scale materials for electrochemical biosensors has been grown exponentially due to high sensitivity and fast response time [45,46]. For instance, a urea biosensor is being developed, the ordered and self-organized nano-array structures, by Mn2+ doping in TiO2 thin films deposition on conducting substrates by dip coating technique . In contemporary to this biosensor study there evolved a parallel study none other a “Nano-biosensor” study, the blend of biosensors and nanotechnology is blatant even from a perfunctory examination of the scientific literature said by Achyuthan K. . Numerous aspects of the anchorage dependent cell functions, including survival, proliferation, differentiation and migration can be regulated by the rigidity of ECM. Adhesions guide these diverse processes both by mediating force transmission from the cell to the flexible substrate and by controlling biochemical signaling pathways . The above mechanosensitivity validations or calculations can be done by the nano-biosensor designs which can become a pioneering research work. Recently cluster analysis methods like multivariate data analysis methods namely hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA)  were used to assay the receptor signaling mechanisms which can also be implemented in and as biosensors or more politely nano-biosensors. The findings above lead to Amperometric biosensor  basing on enzyme from Brassica napus hairy roots to determine ochratoxin A, is a colorless crystalline compound that belongs to a group of closely related derivatives of isocumarin linked to L-phenylalanine and classified as pentaketides .
In medical and health care applications it was always desirable to perform pre-processing and conditioning on the sensor raw output before data acquisition. Based on this requirement, biosensor was proposed and designed using conducting polymers and nano - materials which were having In-situ Signal Conditioning Electronics that eliminates need for additional on board hardware circuitry. A work focused on Optimized Design of Smart Sensor using Conducting Polymer and Gold/Silver/CNT Nanocomposites Polyaniline (PANY) has been selected as the Conducting polymer on which surface CNT thin layer will be deposited using Sol-Gel technique . A detailed design of an optical biosensor using polymeric waveguides intended for blood glucose concentration measurements was presented . Besides this, a novel integrated optic accelerometer employing a cantilever on a silicon substrate is proposed , which has wide variety of appliance not only in optics but also in silicon based organism and that can be used for the detection of sensible parameters when it’s basic platform of silicon is used. An analysis is carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed sensor in a cohort study, terming it’s diligence in optic sensor technology, we can make its alliance in the field of Biotechnology.
All biological molecules and cell organelles are chemo mechanically controlled systems known to every biologist. It is an interdisciplinary art to activate them and work as an electronic device . This logic lead to construction of micro tubule (MT) molecule which is modeled to function as a diode in electronic parameters.
Besides all the above developing an Immunosensor is a task related to (or) dependent on immobilization of antibody molecules, which becomes a influential factor for successful fabrication of immunosensors . This involves Screen- printing technology.
Photoacoustic imaging technique have been developed which works on combinatorial approach of ultrasound spatial resolution and intrinsic rich optical contrast, which penetrates deep into the tissues [54,55] with acoustic ultra sounds and which promises the a very special detection tool in diagnostic medicine . By the way to determine a general motor program Thomas JR et al. , demonstrated all aspects of overhand throwing, using a 12 camera Vicon motion analysis system. This is a cohort study on the motion by using bio-electronic signals.
When there is a rare disease in a population, it is inefficient to take a random sample to estimate a parameter. Instead one takes a random sample of all nuclear families with the disease by ascertaining at least one sibling (proband) of each family techniques like maximum likelihood method [61,62], ANOVA are helpful . In epidemiological and clinical research bias analysis is used for the principal stratum direct effect in the presence of confounded intermediate variables . For occurrence rates of certain recurrent events such as disease infections and discuss nonparmametric comparison of several treatment groups two test procedures are developed using statistics . In pediatric quality of care Bayesian Analysis using power priors are used , even longitudinal data obtained by Gibbs sampling can be calculated by Bayesian quantile regression . Three types of statistical methods, distance based, quadrat and regression methods, are applicable to point data, i.e. data collected at the individual level, including precise measures of subject residential location is used in geographic spatial epidemiology . Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and Principal Component’s analysis (PCA) have both been important tools for researchers for a long time andhave become increasingly common and accessible to computing. For this to resolve binomial logistic multiple regression helped . Testing for the homogeneity of density functions of circular random variables is useful in many biotechnological settings like paleocurrents trends . A colon cancer study in which the investigators wished to assess the efficacy of adjuvant therapy on recurrence of cancer and death for patients with resected colon cancer, for this General Box- Cox Transformation Model for Recurrent Events Data is applied to calculate the recurrence . In automatic finger-print identification system, various statistical methods are implemented in the algorithms used . Probabilistic framework and associated statistical inference methodology is used in analysing the microarray data obtained from confirmatory experimental studies of gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using Affymetrix Genechips® , even Least square  method is also used. Using only the transcription network structure information, a probabilistic model was developed that computes the probabilities with which a pair of genes responds simultaneously (SR) or differentially (DR) to a random network perturbation . Various other methods like survival function in log-logistic distribution, proportional odds regression , Exact Waiting Time Survival Function , Parametric and Non-Parametric Models , Logistic regression , for vectors and integration in gene therapy Peaks height distribution is used , are also used.
Whatever the synthesis from bioprocess may be, whatever the material used as biomaterial, whatever organism which is “GE” i.e “Genetically Engineered”, whatever the sensor or the receptor in the field, there is a relation between each research studies; that is nothing but the field of biotechnology. This is the key role player subject in the present trend studies. Here in this review I overviewed on the diligence of biotechnology in main track streams of biotechnology like biomaterials, biosensors, genetic engineering, biometrics, biostatistics and finally bioprocesses. Here I feel I have reviewed relatively close once and have claimed that the processes or phenomenon described in each sub-heads in the present review contains peculiar applications of techniques in biotechnology, the above mentioned are very fast growing industries commercially, despite facing some problems in genetic engineering. These days biotechnology has been developed in such an extent where, the preservation of human Adipose tissue  can be done accordingly in Human plasma and that technique can be cryopreservated.
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