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ISSN: 2161-0711
Journal of Community Medicine & Health Education
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African Animal Trypanosomiasis (TAA) in the Zone of Project Management Sustainable Livestock Endemic (Progebe) Mali: Results of Entomological and Parasitological Surveys

Zakaria Bocoum1*, Modibo Diarra2, Hamidou M Maiga3, Youssouf Traoré Ibrahim Sanogo1,4 and Oousmane Traoré4

1Central Veterinary Laboratory (CVL), Mali, Africa

2Project Fight against Tse Tse Flies and Trypanosomiasis animal, Sikasso, Mali (LLMP), Mali, Africa

3University of Bamako, Faculty of Science and Technology, Bamako-Mali (UB-FAST), Mali, Africa

4National Coordination Unit PROGEBE, Mali, Africa

*Corresponding Author:
Dr. Zakaria Bocoum
Central Veterinary Laboratory
Mali, Africa
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: September 22, 2012; Accepted date: November 26, 2012; Published date: November 28, 2012

Citation: Bocoum Z, Diarra M, Maiga HM, Ibrahim Sanogo YT, Traoré O (2012) African Animal Trypanosomiasis (TAA) in the Zone of Project Management Sustainable Livestock Endemic (Progebe) Mali: Results of Entomological and Parasitological Surveys. J Community Med Health Educ 2:186. doi:10.4172/2161-0711.1000186

Copyright: © 2012 Bocoum Z, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



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Abstract

The study of the risk of the bovine trypanosomiasis in the area of framing of the PROGEBE aims to measure the impact of the exchange of the medium occurred on the various risk factors. That investigation for parasitology and entomological survey year was carried out between November 2011 and January 2012. On the whole blood samples taken, 956 were examined for the search for trypanosomes by using the technique of the buffy coat. In 29 animals that appeared very infected, 27.5% T. congolense stalemate, 72.5% by T. vivax; That is to say a total average prevalence of 2.82% was the most important observed prevalence on the websites of: 15 Tousséguéla box (prevalence=6.78%) and Manankoro, 11 cases (prevalence=4.07%). Three positive cells were recorded on the website of Madina Diassa (prevalence=1.16%). On the other hand in Sagabary, no case of infection to the trypanosomes was observed. One with 70 points and prospective buyers APPROBATION risk, 30 are positive with the flies. The most infested websites are: Sagabary 14.75 flies/trap/day and 6.4 Tousséguéla flies/trap/day. Two species of tsetse were captured: Glossina palapalis gambiensis on 4 sites and Glossina tachinoides only on the websites of Manankoro Diassa and Madina.

Keywords

Trypanosomiasis; PROGEBE manankoro; Madina Diassa; Tousseguéle; Sagabary; Mali

Introduction

Bovine trypanosomiasis remains a major pathological constraint for livestock development in sub-Saharan Africa. The total annual cost of trypanosomiasis which includes both production losses and control costs exceeds one billion U.S. dollars (ILRAD 1993). In Africa the main vectors of trypanosomes are tsetse and tsetse fly. Thirty one (31) species or subspecies of tsetse flies have been identified, each with its own ecological requirements that define its habitats, its distribution and abundance. To those must be added the following mechanical vectors (Stomoxys and Tabanidae). In the coaching PROGEBE or pressure trypanosome justifies the practice of exclusive breeding bull of N’Dama, a survey sites Manankoro, Madina Diassa, Tousséguéla Sagabary and was used to measure the level of infection with trypanosomiasis in cattle.

To improve the production and productivity of livestock in our country and generate interest in investing in this area it is essential to provide producers, policy makers and development partners to all other stakeholders in this sector livestock of elements of objective assessment of the epidemiological situation of parasitic diseases, mainly African animal trypanosomiasis [1]. An assessment of the prevalence of this pathology in the current state of ecosystem degradation provides a better understanding of how its transmission according to the different configurations of the environment, space utilization by cattle and rational use of trypanocidal when cases of drug resistance are recorded in this area.

Materials and Methods

Study area

The study area (area supervision PROGEBE) includes the following sites: Manankoro, Madina Diassa, and Tousséguéla Sagabary. Each site consists of a number of rural communities. The municipality is composed by a set of villages (see list of villages/site/common). All the villages, with flocks of multiplication and selection of project sites were selected for the various surveys (Figure 1).

community-medicine-health-education-Survey-Sites

Figure 1: Various Survey Sites.

Type and period of study

The type of study is a cross-sectional survey. It embraces two disciplines (parasitology and entomology). During this investigation, parameters such as parasite prevalence and abundance of trypanosome (Bulk Density) tsetse in the area of project management were studied between November 2011 and January 2012.

Population study

This study was conducted on a population of N’Dama cattle settled on what the 956 blood samples were taken and analyzed for detecting parasites (Trypanosoma spp.)

Entomological survey

Biconical traps type Challier-Laveissière and Vavoua were pitfalls as played catch flies, they were placed for 24 hours in different environments (savannah woodland, gallery forest) through grazing areas, routes and watering points for animals. Vectors captured were identified and counted, the results expressed as density (DAP) which is the number of flies per trap per day.

Parasitological diagnosis

The animals were bled from the jugular vein and blood collected in tubes (type vacutainer) with anticoagulant for trypanosomes. Blood tests were performed on squares, in appropriate locations, using a generator as a power source. The technique used was the “Buffy Coat” (BCT). The prevalence of trypanosomiasis trypanosome species encountered and hematocrit (PCV) of the animals examined were recorded. Animals found positive for trypanosomiasis were treated with Berenil with the dose of 3.5 mg/kg of PV.

Processing and statistical analysis

The results were processed with EXCEL 2007. The analysis was performed using ANOVA. If there is a significant difference between the variables, we proceeded by testing equality of expectations for different variance of two observations. Hypotheses are rejected if P>0.05.

Results

Trypanosomosis prevalence and mean hematocrit between sites

Among the four sites visited, 956 blood samples were collected and analyzed. 29 cases of animal trypanosomiasis were diagnosed an overall prevalence of 2.82%. Infection rates of the largest observed sites: Toussékéla 6.78% (15 cases) and Manankoro, 4.07% (11 cases). Three (3 cases) positive were recorded on site Diassa Madina. By cons Sagabary, no cases of infection with trypanosomes were observed. In view of the results of the analyses it appears significant variations in the prevalence of trypanosomosis from one site to the other (p=1854th-05). Significant differences were observed between the infection rates of cattle on sites: Madina Diassa 1.16%, Manankoro 4.07% (p=0.01763621), and 0% Sagabary Tousséguéla 6.78% (p=4, 2851st-05) , Sagabary Manankoro 0% 4.07% (p=0.0004163108), and 0% Sagabary Madina Diassa 1.16 (p=0.04163108), Madina Diassa 1.16% and 6.78% Tousséguéla (p=0.00111484) and Tousséguéla 6.78% - 0% Sagabray (p=4.2851E-05) (Table 1).

Sites Number taken Total positives Infection rate (%) Mean Hematocrit
Manankoro 270 11 4.07 30.65
Madina Diassa 258 3 1.16 31.12
Tousséguéla 221 15 6.78 28.24
Sagabary 207 0 0 29.23
TOTAL/Average 956 29 2.82 28.91

Table 1: Prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis sites PROGEBE-Hematocrit in cattle.

Trypanosomosis prevalence and mean hematocrit cattle intra websites

Site manankoro: Two hundred and seventy (270) cattle distributed among six villages were subjected to blood sampling for trypanosomes. Eleven (11) cases of infection with trypanosomes were observed. The high prevalences were recorded Foulalaba (8.57%), Diendio (7.5%), Solba (6%) and Fangala (3.5%). No significant difference was observed between the prevalence of the disease in these localities (p=0.20284014). The average hematocrit value is 30.65% (Table 2).

Sites Localities Numbers taken Total positives Infection rate (%) Mean Hematocrit
  Manankoro Manankoro 63 0 0 30.63
  Solba 50 3 6 32.03
  Foulalaba 35 3 8.57 33.43
  Diendio 40 3 7.5 32.5
  Fangala 57 2 3.50 27.02
  Garalo 25 0 0 28.28
Madina Diassa  Madina Diassa  20 2 10 29.65
  Kokoun 31 0 0 31.32
  Thian 30 0 0 26.33
  Yorobougoula  50 1 2 29.94
  Filamana 51 0 0 31.57
  Sangaradji  25 0 0 33.28
  Daounaberé 25 0 0 33.64
  Farabalacoura 26 0 0 34.62
  Tousséguéla Diamogo 45 2 4.44 28.67
  Fakola 20 0 0 28
  Fakola hameau  46 3 6.52 30.10
  Socourani hameau  50 0 0 28.4
  N’pièssana 25 1 4 27.36
  Djibléna 15 5 33.33 24.53
  N’golola 20 4 20 23.95
  Sagabary  Kamita 25 0 0 26.8
  Segouna 50 0 0 29.02
  Farabalé 25 0 0 30.72
  Doumbaga 35 0 0 27.63
  Sagabary  25 0 0 29.6
  Hameau de maibourou 12 0 0 31.33
  Toubanidiè 35 0 0 29.56

Table 2: Prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis in localities sites PROGEBE-Hematocrit in cattle.

Madina site diassa: Blood samples were carried out on 258 cattle. 3 cases of three trypanosome infection were diagnosed precisely and Madina Yorobougoula Diassa. Significant differences were observed between the prevalence of the disease in different localities (p = 0.02270976). The average hematocrit value is 31.12%.

Site tousséguéla: Two hundred and twenty one (221) blood samples were collected and analyzed BCT, 15 cases of trypanosome infection were diagnosed, an average prevalence of 6.78%. These positive cases are distributed among the three villages Fakola hamlet (prevalence = 6.52%), Diamogo 2 (prevalence = 4.44%), N’pièssana 1 (prevalence = 4%), Djibléna 5 (prevalence = 33.33%) and N’Golola 4 (prevalence = 20%).

Significant differences were observed between the prevalence of the disease in different localities visited on the site Diassa Madina (p = 0.02270976) exactly between: and Diamogo Djibléna (p = 0.02035621), and Fakola Fakola hamlet (p = 0.04159151) , and Fakola Djibléna (p = 0.00959381), and Fakola N’Golola (p = 0.02104314) Fakola hamlet hamlet Socourani (p = 0.04159151) Fakola hamlet Djibléna (p = 0.02925462) Socourani hamlet Djibléna (p = 0.00959381 ) Socourani hamlet N’Golola (p = 0.02104314), and N’Pièssana Djibléna (p = 0.02018807) The mean hematocrit value was 28.24%.

Site Sagabary: Two hundred and seven (207) cattle were examined. No cases of infection with trypanosomes were observed. The average hematocrit value is 28.91%.

Apparent densities of tsetse sites

Of 70 risk points identified and examined on four survey sites, 30 are positive for flies. Most infested sites are Sagabary 14.75 flies / trap / day and 6.4 Tousséguéla flies / trap / day (Table 3).

Sites Point control Point positive Gpg Gt Total
      m f total m f total  
Manankoro 25 11 1,23 0,97 2.20 0,01 0.11 0.12 2.32 
Madina Diassa  18 6 0.55 0.44 0.16 0.11 0.27  1.27 
Tousséguéla 15 7 4.53 1.86 6,4 0 0 0 6,4
Sagabary 12 6 5,5 9,25 14,75 0 0 0 14,75

Table 3: Bulk density of flies present on the sites PROGEBE.

Two species of flies were captured, Glossina palapalis gambiensis on 4 sites and Glossina tachinoides only sites Manankoro Diassa and Madina. Sex ratio in favor of males at all sites excepting Sagabary. The analysis shows the existence of significant differences between catches of tsetse performed on different sites in the study area (p = 0.03676346). These differences were observed between sites: Madina Diassa and Tousséguéla (p = 0.03045018) firstly, and secondly Madina Diassa and Sagabary (p = 0.03533599).

Tsetse densities in villages component sites

Site Manankoro: Twenty-five (25) points at risk were examined on site Manankoro including 11 positive for flies. The average DAP flies on the site is equal to 2.32 flies / trap / day. The most important DAP was observed Fangala (6 flies / trap / day). Catch more or less important were performed Solba (2 flies / trap / day) Manankoro (1.7 flies / trap / day) Foulalaba (0.2 flies / trap / day) and Diendio (1.73 flies / trap / day) (Table 4).

Sites Localities Point control Point positiv Gpg Gt Total
        m f total m f total  
Manankoro Manankoro 5 3 1,2 0,5 1,7 0 0 0 1.7
  Solba 5 3 0,4 1.33 1.73 0,2 0.06 0.26 2
  Foulalaba 5 1 0.06 0.13 0.2 0 0 0 0.2
  Diendio 5 1 0,6 0.46 1.06 0.26 0,4 0.66 1.73
  Fangala 5 3 2,2 3,4 5,6 0,4 0 0,4 6
Madina Diassa  Madina Diassa  5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  Thian 5 4 2 1,4 3,4 0,6 0,2 0,8 4.2
  Yorobougoula  3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  Filamana 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  Sangaradji  3 2 0 0.33 0.33 0 0.33 0.33 0.66 
Tousséguéla Diamoko 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  Fakola 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  Fakola hameau  4 4 11 4.5 15,5 0 0 0 15,5
  Socourani  9 3 2.66 1.11 3.77 0 0 0 3.77
Sagabary  Sagabary 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  Mara 3 2 8 23 31 0 0 0 31
  Kokoumandala 4 2 9,75 9,25 19 0 0 0 19
  Kenièto 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
   Farabalé 3 2 1 1.66 2.66  0 0 0 2.66 

Table 4: Apparent density of flies present in localities sites PROGEBE.

Two species of Glossina were captured during this survey: Glossina palapalis gambiensis and Glossina tachinoides with a predominance of the former.

Glossina palapalis gambiensis was captured in all localities visited on the site Manankoro. Glossina tachinoides to when she was captured only in villages Solba, and Diendio Fangala.

The sex ratio is in favor of females in Glossina palapalis gambiensis and male Glossina tachinoides. The analysis of the results of catches made revealed no significant difference between the DAP flies in various localities visited on the site Manakoro (p = 0.74913572).

Madina site Diassa: On the site Diassa Madina, 18 risk points distributed among four villages were identified and controlled, 6-positive flies. 4 and 2 to Thian Sangaredji.

The average DAP flies on the website is 27.1 flies / trap / day. The most important DAP was observed Thian. In view of the results of analyzes, significant differences were observed between the DAP tsetse in different localities site Diassa Madina (p = 0.0180692).

The tests of equality of expectations show that DAP flies were significantly different between the villages of Madina Diassa and Thian (p = 0.02425104), and Thian Sangaradji (p = 0.0326179), and Thian Filamana (p = 0.02425104) and between Thian and Yorobougoula (p = 0.02425104).

Two species of flies were captured. Glossina are palapalis gambiensis and Glossina tachinoides with a predominance of the former. Sex ratio in favor of males and females at Thian Sagaredji.

Site Tousséguéla: Tousséguéla on site, 15 risk points were identified and discussed, including 7 positive. The average DAP flies on this site is 6.4 flies / trap / day.

The most important DAP was observed Fakola hamlet (15.5 flies / trap / day). Catches were also made to Socourani (3.77 flies / trap / day).

No significant difference was observed between the DAP flies in various localities visited on the site Toussékéla (p = 0.28936787).

A single species of fly has been captured in the two villages, it is Glossina palapalis gambiensis. Here is the sex ratio in favor of males in the two villages.

Site Sagabary: Twelve (12) points at risk were identified and examined. Six (6) points have been recorded. The average DAP fly on this site is equal to 14.75 flies / trap / day. The largest catches were made at Mara and Kokoumandala. The DAP fly in these localities are respectively 31 and 19 flies / trap / day. Catches were performed Farabalé.

The analysis of the results of catches made revealed no significant difference between the DAP tsetse in different localities site Sagabary (p = 0.28936787).

A single species of fly has been captured in the three villages, it is Glossina palapalis gambiensis. Unlike Kokoumandala, sex ratio in favor of females in the other two villages.

Discussion

The average DAP flies captured on the site is equal to Madina Diassa 1.27 glossines/piège/jour. Bocoum et al. [2] in 2007, obtained a DAP of 0.23 flies / trap / day in Madina Diassa ranch during the dry season fresh. Djiteye [3] graduated in 2002, 30 flies / trap / day Yanfolila.

Glossina palapalis gambiensis and Glossina tachinoides are two species caught in this cross-sectional survey sites PROGEBE, with a predominance of the former.

No G.morsitans.submorsitans was captured on 4 sites visited during this epidemiological survey conducted in the dry season fresh.

According to Planchenault in 1987, “is the most common G.morsitans.submorsitans tsetse found in Madina Diassa ranch” and “G.morsitans.submorsitans density is very low in the dry season (March 0.31en) and quite high season (33.16 in September).

Djiteye [3] in 2002, has obtained 122 G.morsitans.submorsitans / trap / day in Madina Diassa.

The DAP obtained in this study are lower than those obtained by the authors screen mentioned above. This could be explained by the increasing human sites visited, misuse of insecticides and also previous struggles waged against flies mainly on sites Manankoro Diassa and Madina.

The average prevalence of trypanosomosis in N’Dama on 4 sites of the project is equal to 2.28% for 956 cattle examined. It is 4.07% of the site Manakoro, 1.16% in Madina Diassa, 6.78% and zero to Tousséguéla Sagabary. Bocoum et al. [2] observed in 2008 on N’Dama, a prevalence of 21.66% in November ranch Diassa Madina. The average obtained by the authors between November and January is equal to 11.37% for 90 N’Dama examined. Diall et al. [4] in 1986, still in Madina Diassa ranch, observed a prevalence of 55% during the dry season fresh for 51 cattle examined. In 2002, Djiteye et al. [5], in the PROCORDEL [6], got an average infection rate of 6.2% in Sikasso. T. vivax and T. congolense are the main causes of infections in N’Dama observed in this study during the cold dry season PROGEBE sites in the regions of Sikasso and Kayes.

The mean PCV of N’Dama on 4 sites visited is equal to 28.9%. It is equal to 30.65% in Manankoro, 31.12% in Madina Diassa, 28.24% and 29.23% in Tousséguéla to Sagabary.

Bocoum et al. [2] obtained 30% in November 2007 in N’Dama positive in Madina Diassa ranch, 32.47% and 26.03% in December in January 2008. Diall et al. [4] have obtained 33.12% in November 1986 in Madina Diassa ranch, 33.36% and 36.05% in December to January.

Conclusion

This study shows a low population vectors in Madina Diassa ranch during the cold dry season. The spatial distribution of vectors and the prevalence of trypanosomiasis are strongly influenced by human pressure on the environment; work on the incidence of the disease will allow us to better analyze the evolution of the risk of animal trypanosomiasis in the area PROGEBE.

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