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Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. It is world's second-largest country by total area and the fourth-largest country by land area. Canada's border with the United States is the world's longest land border. Canada is a federal parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state.
Geographically, Canada occupies much of the continent of North America, sharing land borders with the contiguous United States to the south, and the US state of Alaska to the northwest. Canada stretches from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west; to the north lies the Arctic Ocean, Greenland to the north east. Since 1925, Canada has claimed the portion of the Arctic between 60° and 141°W longitude, but this claim is not universally recognized. Canada is slightly less than three-fifths as large as Russia and slightly smaller than Europe. Since the end of the last glacial period, Canada has consisted of eight distinct forest regions, including extensive boreal forest on the Canadian Shield. Canada has the longest coastline in the world, with a total length of 243,042 kilometres (151,019 mi).
Canada is the world's eleventh-largest economy as of 2015, with a nominal GDP of approximately US$1.79 trillion. It is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the Group of Eight (G8), and is one of the world's top ten trading nations, with a highly globalized economy. The country's average household disposable income per capita is over US$23,900, higher than the OECD average. In 2014, Canada's exports totalled over C$528 billion, while its imported goods were worth over $523 billion, of which approximately $349 billion originated from the United States, $49 billion from the European Union, and $35 billion from China. In 2012, Canada spent approximately C$31.3 billion on domestic research and development, of which around $7 billion was provided by the federal and provincial governments.
In Dermatology journals, Twelve Canadians have won Nobel prizes. F.H. BANTING and British-born J.J.R. MACLEOD were awarded the physiology/medicine prize in 1923. According to the list of Dermatology journals Canada, Gerhard HERZBERG, Henry TAUB, John POLANYI and Rudolph Marcus won the Dermatology prizes in 1971, 1983, 1986 and 1992 respectively. In 1981, David Hubel won the prize for medicine with Swedish-born Torsten Wiesel for their ground-breaking work involving the mapping of the visual cortex. From Canada Dermatology journals list, Sidney ALTMAN shared the prize for Dermatology in 1989 for a discovery of the catalytic properties of the genetic material RNA. Several of the Canadian laureates in science were immigrants whose careers began elsewhere. As well, a number of Canadians who later became Americans have won Nobel prizes in economics, including Robert Mundell who won the award in 1999.