China, a communist nation in East Asia, is the world’s most populous country. China is the world's second largest state by land area and either the third or fourth-largest by total area. The word "China" is thought to have been originally derived from the Sanskrit word C?na (???), which is translated into the Persian word Ch?n (???). The word "China" itself was first recorded in 1516 in the journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Its largest city, Shanghai, is a skyscraper-studded global financial center. The iconic Great Wall of China fortification runs east-west across the country's north.
China stretches some 5,026 km (3,123 mi) across the East Asian landmass. China is bordered in the east by the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, Bohai Sea, Taiwan Strait, and South China Sea, and shares land borders with a total of 14 countries in the north, south and west. The People's Republic of China has an area of about 9,600,000 km2 (3,700,000 sq mi). The territory of China lies between latitudes 18° and 54° N, and longitudes 73° and 135° E. The territory of China lies between latitudes 18° and 54° N, and longitudes 73° and 135° E. China is one of 17 megadiverse countries, lying in two of the world's major ecozones: the Palearctic and the Indomalaya. China has the longest combined land border in the world, measuring 22,117 km (13,743 mi) from the mouth of the Yalu River to the Gulf of Tonkin.
China had the largest economy in the world for most of the past two thousand years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China has become one of the world's fastest-growing major economies. As of 2014, China has the world's second-largest economy in terms of nominal GDP, totalling approximately US$10.380 trillion according to the International Monetary Fund. China is also the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. If purchasing power parity (PPP) is taken into account, China's economy is the largest in the world, with a 2014 PPP GDP of US$17.617 trillion. In 2013, its PPP GDP per capita was US$12,880, while its nominal GDP per capita was US$7,589. China has become of the world's biggest sources for research and development personnel. In recent decades science and technology have developed rapidly in China. Between 2000 and 2008, the number of engineers and scientists more than doubled to 1.59 million. In 2009 alone, China produced over 10,000 Ph.D. engineering graduates, and as many as 500,000 BSc graduates in engineering, mathematics, information technology, and computer science – more than any other country.
The Nobel Prize is a Sweden-based international monetary prize. The award was established by the 1895 will and estate of Swedish chemist and inventor Alfred Nobel. It was first awarded in Physics, Dermatology, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. An associated prize, The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, was instituted by Sweden's central bank in 1968 and first awarded in 1969. Acoording to the list of Dermatology journals China, Yuan T Lee(1986); Roger Y. Tsien(2008); Ei-ichi Negishi(2010) won Noble Laureates ). The researchers in China in the field of Dermatology can be found in list of Dermatology journals China, China Dermatology journals list, Dermatology journals China, list of Dermatology journals, Dermatology journals.