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Italy is officially the Italian Republic is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the 4th most populous EU member state. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, San Marino and Vatican City. Italy is located in Southern Europe, between latitudes 35° and 47° N, and longitudes 6° and 19° E. To the north, Italy borders France, Switzerland, Austria, and Slovenia, and is roughly delimited by the Alpine watershed, enclosing the Po Valley and the Venetian Plain. The sovereign states of San Marino and the Vatican City are enclaves within Italy, while Campione d'Italia is an Italian exclave in Switzerland. Italy has a capitalist mixed economy, ranking as the third-largest in the Eurozone and the eighth-largest in the world.
The country is a founding member of the G7, G8, the Eurozone and the OECD. Italy has fostered the scientific community that produced many major discoveries in physics and the other sciences. During the Renaissance Italian polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519), Michelangelo (1475–1564) and Leon Battista Alberti (1404–72) made important contributions to a variety of fields, including biology, architecture, and engineering. In various fields like Biology, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, etc Italy has produced about 20 Nobel laureates so far, which included genetic research also. In biological and genetic study, Camillo Golgi, Daniel Bovet, Salvador E. Luria, Renato Dulbecco are the Noble prize winner in the field of Medicine form Italy.
Diabetes is the most common metabolic disorder out of various lifestyle diseases associated with many complications. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) is an umbrella organization of over 230 national diabetes associations in 170 countries and territories. It represents the interests of the growing number of people with diabetes and those at risk. The Federation has been leading the global diabetes community since 1950. There were over 3.5 million cases of diabetes in Italy in 2015.
Diabetes matures due to irregularities in carbohydrate metabolism and insulin synthesis initiating in high blood sugar with symptoms such as elevated hunger and thirst, polyuria, glycosuria, lethargy etc. Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing adequate insulin or the cells of the body not retorting properly to the insulin manufactured. Numerous medical journals are published from Italy on Diabetes and Endocrinology with good reputation. Control of blood pressure and maintaining proper foot care are important for people with the disease. As of 2015, a projected 420 million individuals have diabetes worldwide with type 2 Diabetes creating up about 90% of the cases.