Brazil is the fifth largest country by both area and population. Brazil is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language, and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 km (4,655 mi). It borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and occupies 47.3 % of the continent of South America. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, and extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats.
Brazil’s geography is a fascinating one. As the home of the acclaimed Amazon Rainforest, as well as the Brazilian Highlands and vast stretches of coastline. Brazil has one of the world's most extensive river systems, with eight major drainage basins, all of which drain into the Atlantic Ocean. Two of these basins—the Amazon and Tocantins-Araguaia account for more than half the total drainage area. The largest river system in Brazil is the Amazon, which originates in the Andes and receives tributaries from a basin that covers 45.7% of the country, principally the north and west.
Brazil has the world's seventh largest economy by nominal GDP, and the seventh largest by purchasing power parity. Brazil's economy is the largest of Latin America and the second largest in the Western Hemisphere. Brazil is a large, populous country in South America, which has one of the biggest concentrations of people with diabetes. This article reviews the current status of endocrinology care, medical education and training, and endocrine research in Brazil. It highlights achievements in public health and research, which can be emulated by other countries. In Endocrine fields, a more realistic and responsible policies in terms of medical traineeship, patient education, and mainly scientific production would be mandatory to raise Brazil to a global competitive level.
Research in Endocrinology is fostered by a number of organizations, which were created mostly during the 1950s, specifically for directly promoting and funding research and development in all science fields. Among them, the National Research Council (CNPq) and the National Agency for Financing Studies and Researches (FINEP), nowadays as part of the Ministry of Science and Technology, are the most active. Following the pioneering (and highly successful) example of Sγo Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP), almost all federal states have their own public foundations for supporting research and development in general. Usually these foundations are financially supported by state funds as settled in the constitutions of each federal state. Peter Medawar has received a nobel prize for medicine. Numerous medicine journals have been published from Brazil with good reputation. Brazil is ranked one among 5 in publishing highest number of articles in Endocrinology.