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Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Canada's border with the United States is the world's longest land border. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, and education.
Geographically, its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean. Canada is the world's second-largest country by total area and the fourth-largest country by land area. Canada is a federal parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy.
Canada has the 11th or 15th-largest (PPP) economy in the world, is one of the world's wealthiest nations, and is a member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and Group of Seven (G7). Canada also has a sizable manufacturing sector, based in Central Canada, with the automobile industry and aircraft industry being especially important.
In physiology and Medicine, Canada produced 5 Nobel laureates so far. Canada has established infrastructure for advanced medical research. Farquharson was responsible for the discovery of the Farquharson phenomenon, an important principle of endocrinology, was a Canadian doctor. The CSEM (The Canadian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism) is a national advocate for excellence in endocrinology research. The Canadian Pediatric Endocrine Group (CPEG) is the official Canadian association for pediatric endocrinology. Numerous Endocrinology journals are publishing from Canada with good reputation. Several leading Institution in the country including Universities, schools such as McMaster University, University of Western Ontario, University of Toronto, University of Saskatchewan and others are spearheading the medical research in the field of Endocrinology.