Saudi Arabia, authoritatively known as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is an Arab state in Western Asia constituting the majority of the Arabian Peninsula. With an area region of around 2,150,000 km2 (830,000 sq mi), Saudi Arabia is topographically the fifth-biggest state in Asia and second-biggest state in the Arab world (after Algeria).
Saudi Arabia is flanked by Jordan and Iraq toward the north, Kuwait toward the upper east, Qatar, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates toward the east, Oman toward the southeast, and Yemen toward the south. It is the main country with both a Red Sea coast and a Persian Gulf coast, and a large portion of its territory comprises of bone-dry cold desert or infertile landforms.
Saudi Arabia has an oil-based economy with strong government control over major economic activities. Saudi Arabia possesses 18% of the world's proven petroleum reserves, ranks as the largest exporter of petroleum, and played a leading role in OPEC for many years. The petroleum sector accounts for almost all of Saudi government revenues, and export earnings. Most workers, particularly in the private sector, are foreigners. Saudi Arabia is member of G20.
Innovation and technology development are integral to Saudi Arabia’s long-term vision as set out in the National Science, Technology and Innovation Plan (NSTIP). Implementation of the NSTIP falls to the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) and various Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) institutions; including 17 ministries, 10 universities, and 13 national agencies and commissions. The private sector also plays an important role and is involved in a number of projects. Various programs have been established under the NSTIP targeting strategic areas, including water technologies, biotechnology, advanced materials, nanotechnology, information technology, electronics, communication, oil and gas, petrochemicals technology, medical and health, space, energy, environment, agriculture, and construction. Numerous Endocrinology journals are published from Saudi Arabia with good reputation like International Journal of Endocrinology and Journal of Endocrinology and Diabetes. According to SCImago Journal & Country rank Saudi Arabia acquired 44th position in publishing articles in Endocrinology.