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Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain is a sovereign state largely located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. Its mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.
Spain is the world's fifty-second largest country and Europe's fourth largest country with an area of 505,992 km2. Mount Teide is the highest mountain peak in Spain and is the third largest volcano in the world from its base. Spain lies between latitudes 26° and 44° N, and longitudes 19° W and 5° E. Alluvial plains are found along the coast, the largest of which is that of the Guadalquivir in Andalusia.
Spain's capitalist mixed economy is the 16th largest in world and 5th largest in the European Union. Spain is listed 23rd in UN Human Development Index and 30th in GDP (PPP) per capita by World Bank. Expenditures for research and development are current and capital expenditures (both public and private) on creative work undertaken systematically to increase knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture, and society, and the use of knowledge for new applications. Research and development covers basic research, applied research, and experimental development.
In medical field, this nation produced 2 Nobel laureates so far. One is Santiago Ramón y Cajal in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system, and other one is Severo Ochoa for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid. University of Barcelona and Universidad Autónoma de Madrid monitors the funding and integration of the Research and development related to medical sciences in the country. Numerous endocrinology journals are published from Spain with good reputation. Spain endocrinology journals list contains journal like “Endocrinologia y Nutricion”, “Frontiers in Endocrinology”, etc.