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Turkey is a parliamentary republic in Eurasia, largely located in Western Asia, with the smaller portion of Eastern Thrace in Southeast Europe. Turkey is bordered by eight countries: Syria, Iraq, Iran, Armenia, Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan, Georgia, Bulgaria and Greece.
Geographically, Turkey is the world's 37th-largest country in terms of area. The country is encircled by seas on three sides: the Aegean Sea to the west, the Black Sea to the north and the Mediterranean to the south. Turkey also contains the Sea of Marmara in the northwest. The coastline of Turkey (excluding islands) is 8333 km.
Turkey is also defined by economists and political scientists as one of the world's newly industrialized countries. Turkey has the world's 17th largest GDP by PPP. The country is among the world's leading producers of agricultural products; textiles; motor vehicles, ships and other transportation equipment; construction materials; consumer electronics and home appliances. The country is among the founding members of the OECD and the G-20 major economies. Turkish brands like Beko and Vestel are among the largest producers of consumer electronics and home appliances in Europe, and invest a substantial amount of funds for research and development in new technologies related to these fields.
In Chemistry and Literature, Turkey produced 2 Nobel laureates so far. Several leading Institution in the country including Karadeniz Technical University, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute spearheading the Medical research in the field of Endocrinology. GEBI is the only publicly funded research entity in Turkey, conducting cutting-edge research on the main topics of biotechnology. There are four basic research areas in biotechnology including medical biotechnology, plant biotechnology and agricultural research and bioenergy. Main mission of GEBI as the only national institute in Turkey specialized in biotechnology is to contribute to the national economic development. To reach these goals, in medical biology GEBI scientists are working on the different aspects of medical research such as finding the causes of aneurysmal diseases with different approaches including proteomics. Eminent editor like Cihangir Erem are working in the field of Endocrinology. Numerous Endocrinology Journals are published from Turkey with good reputation.