alexa Distortions of Time Perception during Critical Situations | OMICS International
ISSN: 1522-4821
International Journal of Emergency Mental Health and Human Resilience
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Distortions of Time Perception during Critical Situations

Monara Nunes1*, Diandra Martins e Silva1, Victor Hugo Bastos1,2, Gildário Dias3, Fernando Silva- Júnior3,4, Silmar Teixeira4

1Brain Mapping and Functionality Laboratory (LAMCEF/UFPI), Federal University of Piauí, Brazil

2Brain Mapping and Sensorial Motor Integration, Institute of Psychiatry of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (IPUB/UFRJ), Brazil

3Laboratory of Neurophysics (LANF/UFPI), Federal University of Piauí, Parnaíba, Brazil

4Brain Mapping and Plasticity Laboratory (LAMPLACE/UFPI), Federal University of Piauí, Parnaíba, Brazil

*Corresponding Author:
Monara Nunes
Brain Mapping and Functionality Laboratory (LAMCEF/UFPI)
Federal University of Piauí
Brazil
E-mail: [email protected]

Visit for more related articles at International Journal of Emergency Mental Health and Human Resilience

Abstract

Humans are good at estimating durations of time. The person's time perception is affected by emotion (Eiser, 2009). To allow for these predictions, an internal signal that provides the organism with a sense of time has to exist. An information-processing model of Scalar Expectancy Theory (SET) and its evolution into the neurobiologically plausible Striatal Beat-Frequency (SBF) theory, contemporaneously are the most accepted to explain this ability to perceive time (van Rijn, Gu & Meck, 2014). According to this theory initially developed by Gibbon et al, the “internal clock” is comprised of a pacemaker that emits pulses at a regular rate and a switch controls how many pulses enter into an accumulator, which stores the number of pulses during the event to be timed. With longer stimulus duration, more pulses are accumulated and consequently the higher the value of the time (Weber’s law) (Gibbon, 1977).

Humans are good at estimating durations of time. The person's time perception is affected by emotion (Eiser, 2009). To allow for these predictions, an internal signal that provides the organism with a sense of time has to exist. An information-processing model of Scalar Expectancy Theory (SET) and its evolution into the neurobiologically plausible Striatal Beat-Frequency (SBF) theory, contemporaneously are the most accepted to explain this ability to perceive time (van Rijn, Gu & Meck, 2014). According to this theory initially developed by Gibbon et al, the “internal clock” is comprised of a pacemaker that emits pulses at a regular rate and a switch controls how many pulses enter into an accumulator, which stores the number of pulses during the event to be timed. With longer stimulus duration, more pulses are accumulated and consequently the higher the value of the time (Weber’s law) (Gibbon, 1977).

The information-processing model of SET also states that temporal judgements rely on memory and decision stages. In this way, whenever the organism wants to respond simultaneously with the onset of an upcoming event, it retrieves a random sample from memory. The sample is associated with previous experiences by the individual and compared with a previously encoded duration to make a decision (Wittmann, 2013). This information-processing is changed in critical situations when arousal mechanisms are automatically activated. A mental mobilization system allows that the individual to deal with danger in an optimal way ensuring his survival. The afferent stimulus of threat is interpreted and compared with previous situations, then the response to the stimulus is given (Dyregrov, Solomon & Bassøe, 2000).

Unfortunately, much more is studied about the psychological consequences of trauma than about the mental processes that occur during the critical situations. Subjects commonly report that time seems to have moved in slow motion during a critical event (such as a car accident) as if there was an ability to perceive events with higher temporal resolution (Tamm, Uusberg, Allik & Kreegipuu, 2014). Effects emotional arousal and affective attention on internal clock can influence on temporal judgments and contribute to emotional distortions of time perception. The arousal causes an increase in the speed of the pacemaker and emotional stimuli may cause the switch to close faster or open later than usual (Lake, LaBar & Mack, 2016).

Recent studies show that emotional information affects the perception of time at different time points (Yoo & Lee, 2015). The influence of emotion on time perception is a real-time process. Dynamic emotional expressions starting with a neutral expression will present a lesser effect than dynamic emotional expressions starting with a positive or negative expression, because a positive or negative expression will capture attention and influence the internal clock processes immediately (Li & Yuen, 2015). Another aspect of the time perception of time in critical situations is that this may influence the outcome of the treatment of severe mental disorders. A study provided empirical support that time perspective plays an important role in persons with Severe Mental Illness (SMI). Its evaluation in patients with severe conditions may favor actions that lead to a Balanced Time Perspective (BTP) profile and may lead to better quality of life. Thus, the way that the person with SMI estimates a time period gives information on his/her health status and attitude towards life (Oyanadel & Buela-Casal, 2014).

However, increase in temporal resolution is not a single entity that speeds or slows, but instead is composed of separable subcomponents. The time-slowing is a function of recollection, not perception: a richer encoding of memory may cause a salient event to appear, retrospectively, as though it lasted longer. Maybe the amygdala is involved in memory capacity to make dilated time trials retrospectively due to a richer coding, and perhaps secondary memories (Stetson, Fiesta & Eagleman, 2007; Sato, Kochiyama & Uono, 2015). Furthermore, it is known that the amygdala, thalamus, and cerebellum are subcortical structures that assist the process of selecting a course of action from among 2 or more alternatives by considering the potential outcomes of selecting each option and estimating its consequences in the short, medium and long term. This process also includes cortical structures, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex (Broche-Pérez, Jiménezm & Omar-Martínez, 2015).

References

Broche-Pérez, Y., Jiménez, L.F.H. & Omar-Martínez., E. (2015). Bases neurales de la toma de decisiones. Neurología, 31(5), 319-325.

Dyregrov, A., Solomon, R. & Bassøe, C.F. (2000). Mental mobilization processes in critical incident stress situations. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 2(2), 73-81.

Eisen, L.A. (2009). Time perception is distorted during responses to medical emergencies. Medical Hypotheses, 72, 626-628.

Gibbon, J. (1977). Scalar expectancy theory and Weber's Law in animal timing. Psychological Review, 84, 279-335.

Lake, J.I., La Bar, K.S. & Mack, W.H. (2016). Emotional modulation of interval timing and time perception. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 64, 403-420.

Li, W.O. & Yuen, K.S.L. (2015). The perception of time while perceiving dynamic emotional faces. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1248.

Oyanadel, C. & Buela-Casal, G. (2014). Time perception and psychopathology: Influence of time perspective on quality of life of severe mental illness. Actas españolas de psiquiatría, 42(3), 99-107.

Sato, W., Kochiyama, T. & Uono, S. (2015). Spatiotemporal neural network dynamics for the processing of dynamic facial expressions. Nature: scientific reports, 5, 12432.

Stetson, C., Fiesta, M.P. & Eagleman, D.M. (2007). Does time really slow down during a frightening event? PLoS ONE, 2(12), e1295.

Tamm, M., Uusberg, A., Allik, J. & Kreegipuu, K. (2014). Emotional modulation of attention affects time perception: Evidence from event-related potentials. Acta Psychologica. 149, 148-156.

van Rijn, H., Gu, B.M. & Meck, W.H. (2014). Dedicated clock/timing-circuit theories of time perception and timed performance. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 829, 75-99.

Wittmann, M. (2013). The inner sense of time: how the brain creates a representation of duration. Nature Reviews: Neuroscience, 14, 217-223.

Yoo, J.Y. & Lee, J.H. (2015). The effects of valence and arousal on time perception in individuals with social anxiety. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1208.
Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Relevant Topics

Article Usage

  • Total views: 8413
  • [From(publication date):
    June-2016 - Dec 13, 2017]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 8244
  • PDF downloads : 169
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri & Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

 
© 2008- 2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version