alexa Prevalence of Stress among Junior Medical Students, Taif University | Open Access Journals
ISSN: 2161-0711
Journal of Community Medicine & Health Education
Like us on:
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Prevalence of Stress among Junior Medical Students, Taif University

Atalla A* and Altuwairqi YA

Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, Taif University, Saudi Arabia

Corresponding Author:
Ayman Atalla
department of Psychiatry
College of Medicine, Taif University, Saudi Arabia
Tel: 966507978682
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: May 31, 2017; Accepted Date: July 20, 2017; Published Date: July 24, 2017

Citation: Atalla A, Altuwairqi YA (2017) Prevalence of Stress among Junior Medical Students, Taif University. J Community Med Health Educ 7:537. doi:10.4172/2161-0711.1000537

Copyright: © 2017 Atalla A, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Community Medicine & Health Education

Abstract

Background: Medical students are exposed to diverse varieties of stress. It is reported during undergraduate medical education stress is related to academic, financial and social. Sometime stress arises from compulsion to succeed and also in difficulties of integrating education system.

Methodology: The study was conducted from junior medical students, Taif University, KSA during the academic year 2016-2017; Self-administered questionnaire was utilized to know the prevalence, causes, and levels of stress among students.

Results: 82% of study group had moderate stress, 12.67% had severe stress and 5.33% had mild stress.

Conclusion: The prevalence of stress among junior medical students in Taif University, KSA was high especially in the past 30 days. Type of residence, average family monthly income, between history of sleep disorder, travel duration in minutes and BMI were the dominators for stress in general.

Keywords

Stress; Medical students; Taif university

Introduction

Background

Stress is a state of an individual that result from the interaction of the individual with the environment which is perceived as threatening or threat to the well-being. It is an external constraint which directly upsets the individual both mentally and physically. Individual in a stressful situation is influenced by his or her mental ability to carry out on-going tasks [1,2].

Linn and Zeppa [3] have suggested that some stress in medical school training is needed for learning. Stress that facilitates learning is called ‘favorable stress’ and stress that suppresses learning is called ‘unfavorable stress’. Depending upon their cultural backgrounds, personal traits, experience and coping skills, medical students may perceive the same stressors differently.

An optimal level of stress, referred to earlier as ‘favorable stress’, can enhance learning [4] However, excessive stress can lead to physical and mental health problems [5]. It can reduce students’ self-esteem [4,6] and may affect academic achievement and personal or professional development. Medical students are exposed to diverse varieties of stress. It is reported during undergraduate medical education stress is related to academic, financial and social. Sometime stress arises from compulsion to succeed and also in difficulties of integrating education system [7,8].

Researcher identified stress of medical students are mainly due to curricular overload but not due to personal difficulties [9]. It is because of demanding, intense environment of medical education has created excessive pressure on medical students [10]. There are number of reports indicated that medical school’s environment is not congenial and friendly to enhance psychological and physical health of students [11-13]. It is less than 3% in any population suffers from psychiatric diseases. Similar figure also observed with medical students before taking admission in medical school [14-17].

Medical students are exposed to regular pressure with overwork of academic burden and examination that brings various changes in their daily routine such as lack of sleep, irregular diet, smoking and substance abuse in order to cope with stress [18,19]. Coping is a way that a person reacts or responds towards stressors. Failing to cope with stress effectively causes deterioration of academic and professional performances and increases the psychological distress [18,20].

It is important for medical educators to know the prevalence, causes, and levels of stress among students, which not only affect their health but also their academic achievements at different points of time of their study period. In Saudi Arabia, local epidemiological data about psychological morbidity among medical undergraduate students are scarce. Results of two recent studies from Egypt and Saudi Arabia suggested high rates of anxiety and depression among medical students [21,22].

Methodology

Study setting

This study was conducted at medical college, Taif University (male and female sections). Taif City is located at the West of Saudi Arabia. It is located in the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia at an elevation of 1700 meters on the slopes of the Al-Sarawat mountains. The college of medicine at the Taif University is one of the most recent medical schools in Saudi Arabia. It started on 1425 AH (2005 AB). The female part started at 2010 AB [23].

Study design

It will be a cross sectional study.

Study population

The study population was consists of junior medical students, males and females in Taif University enrolled during the academic year 2016-2017 (second and third years). The estimated number of eligible medical students is 154 females and 243 male students. This figure is obtained from Admission and Registration Deanship. They are distributed as follows; 2nd year (80 females and 124 males), 3rd year (74 females and 119 males).

Inclusion criteria

The inclusion criteria are:

• 2nd and 3rd year’s male and female medical students.

• Regular attendees in the University.

Exclusion criteria

Students who was absent at the time of study conduction or those who was refuse to participate in the study.

Sampling method and sample size

All male and female medical students (2nd and 3rd) years eligible to include was invited to participate in the study.

Data collection tool

Self-administered questionnaire was utilized for data collection. It included 3 main parts: The first part includes socio-demographic data, variables pertaining to demographic profile and personal factors such as age, gender, body weight, place of residence, type of residence, number of siblings, parents’ education level, parents’ occupation, parent income, whether living with parents, relatives or in other places like hostel, place of residence, distance and time to reach college, physical illness and sleeping habits. The second part includes a list of possible causes of stress either inside or outside the college such as difficulty in understanding lectures and memorize facts, no enough time for revision, no enough references, living environment problems, family problems, having too many lectures and assignments, infrastructure-related problems, and financial problems.

The third part is a valid and reliable tool to measure psychological stress. The Kessler10 Psychological Distress instrument (K10) developed by Kessler and colleagues [24] was utilized. This instrument has been used widely in population-based epidemiological studies to measure current (1-month) distress, to measure the level of stress. The K10 consists of 10 questions in the form of “how often in the past month did you feel ...” and offers specific symptoms, such as ‘tired out for no good reason’, ‘nervous’, and ‘sad or depressed’.

The five possible responses for each question range from ‘none of the time’ to ‘all of the time’ and were scored from 1 to 5 respectively. All the questions were collated to obtain a total score. The total score was interpreted as follows: a score of less than 20 was considered not to represent stress of any level while a score of 20-24 represented mild stress, 25-29 represented moderate stress, and 30-50 represented severe stress [25]. The questionnaire had also additional questions relating to academic achievement, sources of stress, and any perceived medical illness (Table 1).

  N %
Age
<20 202 67.33
>20 98 32.67
Range 19-30
Mean±SD 20.36±1.15
Gender
Male 148 49.33
Female 152 50.67
Year of study
Second year 230 76.67
Third year 70 23.33
Marital status
Single 296 98.67
Married 4 1.33
Place of residence
Taif city 294 98.00
Outside Taif city 6 2.00
Type of residence
Rented house 84 28.00
Private flat 56 18.67
Private villa 148 49.33
Others 12 4.00
Living status
With parents 286 95.33
With others 8 2.67
Alone 6 2.00
Number of siblings
<3 64 21.33
3-5. 74 24.67
>5 162 54.00
Range 1-15
Mean±SD 4.79±2.47
Father's education
Up to primary 32 10.67
Intermediate/high school 92 30.67
College or above 176 58.67
Father's job
Governmental 180 60.00
Private 16 5.33
Retired 104 34.67
Mother's education
Up to primary 74 24.67
Intermediate/high school 92 30.67
College or above 134 44.67
Mother's job
House wife 186 62.00
Employed 114 38.00
Average family monthly income in SR
<5000 44 14.67
5000-10000 52 17.33
10000-15000 68 22.67
>15000 136 45.33

Table 1: Demographic data among study group (N=300).

Pilot study

A pilot study was conducted on 20 students (10 males and 10 females) for the purpose of testing the study feasibility and wording of the questionnaire in particular the first two parts. Their results were included in the main survey in case of no significance detected from the main results (Table 2).

  N %
History of chronic health problem
Yes 30 10.00
No 270 90.00
History of sleep disorders
Yes 36 12.00
No 264 88.00
Mode of travel to the college
Private car 274 91.33
Taxi 4 1.33
others 22 7.33
Travel duration in minutes
<15 50 16.67
15-30 102 34.00
>30 148 49.33
Range 3-60
Mean±SD 26.08±13.94
BMI
Underweight 50 16.67
Normal weight 148 49.33
Overweight 56 18.67
Obese 46 15.33
Range 12.21-73.00
Mean±SD 24.37±8.65
Academic performance in the last semester
Excellent 122 40.67
Very good 106 35.33
Good 60 20.00
Pass 12 4.00

Table 2: Factors affecting stress among study group (N=300).

Data analysis

Collected data was coded, verified and analyzed using SPSS program version 22. Descriptive statistics was applied in the form of frequency and percentage for categorical variables while mean and standard deviation was utilized for description of continuous variables. Chi-square test was applied to test for the association and/or difference between categorical variables. Other statistical tests were used whenever appropriate. A p-value of equal or less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

There was significant relation between stress and problems that one may face in studying career (p value <0.001). When asking about difficulty to understand lectures 57.33% found it neutral, 31.33% disagreed while 11.33% agreed. When asking about difficulty to memorize facts 57.67% found it neutral, 20.67% agreed while 22.67% disagreed. 64% agreed that no enough time for revision, 24% found it neutral while 12% disagreed. 46.67% found it neutral, 26.67% agreed while 26.67% disagreed Table 3. 64% disagreed that home or hostel environment not comfortable, 20.67% found it neutral while 15.33% agreed. 71.33% agreed having too many lectures, 26.67% found it neutral while 2% disagreed. 40.67% found it neutral regards having too many assignments, 20.67% agreed while 38.67% disagreed. 64% found it neutral regards lecturer asking questions, 18% agreed while 18% disagree Figure 1. 45.33% agreed that infrastructure not comfortable, 34% found it neutral while 20.67% disagreed. 72% disagreed regards having financial problem, 19.33% found it neutral while 8.67% agreed. 82% disagreed regards having financial problem, 12% found it neutral while 6% agreed as shown in Table 4. 82% of study group had moderate stress, 12.67% had severe stress and 5.33% had mild stress Table 5.

  Stress Weight % of Agreement Chi-Square
Disagree Neutral Agree c2 P-value
Difficult to understand lectures N 94 172 34 540 60.00 95.760 <0.001*
% 31.33 57.33 11.33
Difficult to memorize factsC N 62 170 68 606 67.33 73.680 <0.001*
% 20.67 56.67 22.67
No enough time for revision N 36 72 192 756 84.00 133.440 <0.001*
% 12.00 24.00 64.00
No enough references in the library N 80 140 80 600 66.67 24.000 <0.001*
% 26.67 46.67 26.67
Home or hostel environment not comfortable N 192 62 46 454 50.44 128.240 <0.001*
% 64.00 20.67 15.33
I have too many lectures N 6 80 214 808 89.78 222.320 <0.001*
% 2.00 26.67 71.33
I have too many assignments N 116 122 62 546 60.67 21.840 <0.001*
% 38.67 40.67 20.67
Lecturer ask questions N 54 192 54 600 66.67 126.960 <0.001*
% 18.00 64.00 18.00
Infrastructure not comfortable (building, chair, class room, bathroom, etc. N 62 102 136 674 74.89 27.440 <0.001*
% 20.67 34.00 45.33
I have financial problem N 216 58 26 410 45.56 206.960 <0.001*
% 72.00 19.33 8.67
I have family problems N 246 36 18 372 41.33 321.360 <0.001*
% 82.00 12.00 6.00

Table 3: Some problems that one may face in studying career among study group (N=300).

community-medicine-health-education-study-group

Figure 1: Assessment of stress among study group.

There was a significant relation between history of sleep disorder, travel duration in minutes, BMI and stress (p value=0.002, 0.028 and 0.008). There was no relation of statistical importance between history of chronic disease, mode of travel to the college, academic performance and stress (p value= 0.969, 0.472 and 0.947).

Stress
  N %
Mild 16 5.33
Moderate 246 82.00
Severe 38 12.67
Total 300 100.00
Range 10-43
Mean±SD 24.63±6.49
Chi-square X2 112.320 
P-value  <0.001*

Table 4: Assessment of stress among study group.

Demographic data N Stress T or F T-test or ANOVA
Mean ± SD test value P-value
History of chronic health problem Yes 30 21.200±2.999 T -0.039 0.969
No 270 21.222±2.949
History of sleep disorders Yes 36 22.667±2.767 T 3.321 0.002*
No 264 21.023±2.922
Mode of travel to the college Private car 274 21.204±2.965 F 0.753 0.472
Taxi 4 23.000±1.155
others 22 21.091±2.942
Travel duration in minutes <15 50 22.120±3.108 F 3.608 0.028*
15-30 102 20.765±2.637
>30 148 21.230±3.044
BMI Underweight 50 21.120±3.549 F 3.978 0.008*
Normal weight 148 20.716±2.860
Overweight 56 21.929±2.500
Obese 46 22.087±2.731
Academic performance in the last semester Excellent 122 21.328±2.908 F 0.122 0.947
Very good 106 21.113±2.681
Good 60 21.233±3.088
Pass 12 21.000±4.824

Table 5: Relation between factors affecting stress and stress among study group (N=300).

Discussion

Stress is a state of an individual that result from the interaction of the individual with the environment which is perceived as threatening or threat to the well-being.

This study aimed to investigate psychological stress among junior medical students in Taif University, KSA so as intervention strategy can be proposed to reduce psychological stress and enhance student’s abilities.

In this study, 300 junior medical students in Taif University were participated, 67.33% aged less than 20 years and 32.67% aged more than 20 year. Age ranges from 19-30 years. 49.33% were males and 50.67% were females. 76.67% were at 2nd year and 23.33% were at 3rd year.82% of study group had moderate stress, 12.67% had severe stress and 5.33% had mild stress. there was no relation of statistical importance between age, gender, year of study, marital status, place of residence, living status, number of sibling and stress (p value=0.604, 0.081, 0.904, 0.834, 0.597, 0.735 and 0.080 respectively). There was a significant relation between stress over the past 30 days, age, gender, marital status, type of residence and living status (p value=0.048, 0.025, 0.003, 0.04 and 0.008 respectively).

While in Sani et al. at Jizan University in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia [26], The prevalence of stress among medical students was 71.9%, with females being more stressed (77%) than the males (64%). There was a statistically significant association between stress and gender (p<0.01, odds ratio 1.89 CI 1.20 – 2.90).

In this study, there was no relation of statistical importance between year of study, place of residence, number of sibling and stress over the past 30 days (p value=0.796, 0.534 and 0.356 respectively). There was a significant relation between stress and average family monthly income in SR (p value=0.001). There was no relation of statistical importance between father's education, father's job, mother's education, mother's job and stress (p value=0.086, 0.091, 0.44 and 0.074 respectively). There was a significant relation between stress over the past 30 days, mother's education and average family monthly income in SR (p value=0.011 and 0.042). There was no relation of statistical importance between father's education, father's job, mother's job and stress over the past 30 days (p value=0.292, 0.451 and 0.556 respectively).

While in Sani et al. Parents’ education level or occupation, ownership of house, type of residence, number of siblings, whether living with parents, place of residence, mode of travel to the college, time taken to reach college, marital status and epidemiological factors other than those related to academic issues were not associated with stress.

In Salam and his colleagues in Malaysia, [27] Stress among Malaysian medical students was as high as 56% which is alarming. Year of study, financial problem and relationship problem with parents, siblings and lecturers were the significant determinants.

In this study, there was a significant relation between history of sleep disorder, travel duration in minutes, BMI and stress (p value=0.002, 0.028 and 0.008). There was no relation of statistical importance between history of chronic disease, mode of travel to the college, academic performance and stress (p value=0.969, 0.472 and 0.947). There was a significant relation between history of sleep disorder, mode of travel to the college, academic performance and stress over the past 30 days (p value=0.004, 0.003 and 0.046). There was no relation of statistical importance between history of chronic disease, travel duration in minutes, BMI and stress over the past 30 days (p value=0.496, 0.81 and 0.225). There is a significant correlation between stress and feeling stress over the past 30 days among study group (p value<0.001 and r= 0.361).

While in Sani et al. Perceived sleeping problems (p<0.01, odds ratio 0.289, C.I- 0.172 − 0.487) and waking time in the morning (p<0.05, odds ratio 0.549, C.I -0.304 – 0.993) showed a statistically significant association with stress. The major factor associated with perceived stress was long hours of study.

Conclusion

The prevalence of stress among junior medical students in Taif University, KSA was high especially in the past 30 days. Type of residence, average family monthly income in SR, between history of sleep disorder, travel duration in minutes and BMI were the dominators for stress in general. age, gender, marital status, type of residence, living status, mother's education, average family monthly income in SR, history of sleep disorder, mode of travel to the college and academic performance were the dominators for stress in the past 30 days.

Recommendations

• Counseling about importance of sleep hygiene.

• Increase awareness about importance of physical activity and schedule exercise programs.

• Counseling about weight reduction and dietary habits.

• Minimizing the duration of travel to college.

• Modification of living environment to avoid stressors.

References

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Relevant Topics

Recommended Conferences

Article Usage

  • Total views: 109
  • [From(publication date):
    August-2017 - Sep 25, 2017]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 84
  • PDF downloads :25
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords