alexa The Importance of Research on the Relatives of Schizophrenia Patients – Towards Endophenotypic Markers | Open Access Journals
ISSN: 1522-4821
International Journal of Emergency Mental Health and Human Resilience
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

The Importance of Research on the Relatives of Schizophrenia Patients – Towards Endophenotypic Markers

Tamás Tényi MD., PhD*, András Hajnal MD., Györgyi Csábi MD., PhD

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Faculty, University of Pécs, Hungary

*Corresponding Author:
Tamás Tényi
E-mail: [email protected]

Visit for more related articles at International Journal of Emergency Mental Health and Human Resilience

Abstract

The endophenotype concept of schizophrenia represents an important approach in the exploration of the neurobiology of the illness. Gottesman and Shields (2003) described an endophenotype as an internal, intermediate phenotype (i.e., not obvious to the unaided eye) that fills the gap between genes and diseases. Endophenotypes should be: (1) associated with the illness in the population, (2) heritable, (3) state-independent, (4) found in unaffected family members at a higher rate than in the general population, and (5) shown to cosegregate with the illness within families. As we can see an important characteristic of an endophenotype, that it can be found among the healthy, first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia. Minor physical anomalies (MPAs) and social cognition (SG) are suggested as endophenotypes on account of the findings that MPAs and SG deficits are more common in schizophrenia patients than in healthy controls, which can be found also in remission and in few studies higher prevalences were found in healthy first-degree relatives

The endophenotype concept of schizophrenia represents an important approach in the exploration of the neurobiology of the illness. Gottesman and Shields (2003) described an endophenotype as an internal, intermediate phenotype (i.e., not obvious to the unaided eye) that fills the gap between genes and diseases. Endophenotypes should be: (1) associated with the illness in the population, (2) heritable, (3) state-independent, (4) found in unaffected family members at a higher rate than in the general population, and (5) shown to cosegregate with the illness within families. As we can see an important characteristic of an endophenotype, that it can be found among the healthy, first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia. Minor physical anomalies (MPAs) and social cognition (SG) are suggested as endophenotypes on account of the findings that MPAs and SG deficits are more common in schizophrenia patients than in healthy controls, which can be found also in remission and in few studies higher prevalences were found in healthy first-degree relatives (Xu et al., 2011; Bora & Pantelis, 2013).

Recently we evaluated two systematic reviews of studies on these two potential endophenotypes (MPAs and SG) to confirm the possibility of them as biological and cognitive markers of the illness. We planned to explore data on MPAs and SG among the relatives of schizophrenia patients. We evaluated two researches of studies published in PubMed, Medline,Web of Science and PsychINFO between the period of 1968 and 2014 (MPAs) and 1980 and 2014 (SG). 11 studies on the appearence of minor physical anomalies in the relatives of schizophrenia patients were found with mixed results, while 15 studies and two meta-analyses were analysed on social cognition studies among the first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia, the exploration of the latter studies showed also diverse findings (Hajnal et al., 2014; Tényi et al., 2014). We confirm that further research is needed to clarify social cognition and minor physical anomaly alternations as endophenotypic markers of schizophrenia.

Acknowledgements

The study was supported by the National Brain Research Program Grant no. NAP KTIA NAP-A-II/12.

References

Bora, E.M., & Pantelis, C. (2013). Theory of mind impairments in first-episode psychosis, individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis and in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia: systematic review and meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Research, 144, 31-36.
Gottesman, I.I., & Gould, T.D. (2003). The endophenotype concept in psychiatry:etymology and strategic intentions. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 636-645.
Hajnal, A., Tényi, T., Varga, E., Simon, M., Halmai, T., Németh, N., et al. (2014). Social cognitive differences in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia. A systematic review. Psychiatria Hungarica, 29, 301-307.
Tényi, T., Hajnal, A., Halmai, T., Herold, R., Simon, M., Trixler, D., et al. (2014). Minor physical anomalies in the relatives of schizophrenia patients. A systematic review of the literature. Psychiatria Hungarica, 29, 208-213.
Xu, T., Chan, R.C.K., & Compton, M.T. (2011). Minor physical anomalies in patients with schizophrenia, unaffected first-degree relatives,and healthy controls: a meta-analysis. PLoS ONE, 6(9), e24129.
Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Relevant Topics

Recommended Conferences

Article Usage

  • Total views: 11583
  • [From(publication date):
    specialissue-2015 - Aug 19, 2017]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 7791
  • PDF downloads :3792
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords