Antibacterial Activities of the Combined Leaf Extract of <em>Phyllanthus muellerianus</em> and Ciprofloxacin against Urogenital Isolates of <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> | Abstract
ISSN: 2167-065X

Clinical Pharmacology & Biopharmaceutics
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Research Article

Antibacterial Activities of the Combined Leaf Extract of Phyllanthus muellerianus and Ciprofloxacin against Urogenital Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus

Ofokansi KC1, Attama AA1, Uzor PF2* and Ovri MO1
1Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nigeria
2Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, University of Nigeria, Nigeria
Corresponding Author : Philip F. Uzor
Department of Pharmaceutical
and Medicinal Chemistry
University of Nigeria, Nsukka
41001, Enugu State, Nigeria
Tel: +234-8037008294
E-mail: [email protected]
Received December 11, 2012; Accepted December 28, 2012; Published January 03, 2013
Citation: Ofokansi KC, Attama AA, Uzor PF, Ovri MO (2012) Antibacterial Activities of the Combined Leaf Extract of Phyllanthus muellerianus and Ciprofloxacin against Urogenital Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Clinic Pharmacol Biopharm. 1:106. doi:10.4172/2167-065X.1000106
Copyright: © 2012 Al-Achi A. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Infectious diseases caused by multi-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus are on the increase and fighting them with natural products may be more efficacious. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity of methanol leaf extract and the solvent fractions of Phyllanthus muellerianus (Kuntze) Excell as well as their combinations with ciprofloxacin against various isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Phytochemical screening was done following established method while the in vitro antimicrobial properties of the extract and fractions of the extract were investigated by the agar diffusion method. Agar diffusion Checkerboard and Overlay Inoculum susceptibility disc methods were further employed to study the interaction of the extract, fraction and ciprofloxacin against eight (8) isolates of S. aureus. Results showed that the extract and the fractions contain glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids. N- Hexane and methylene chloride fractions showed no activity against the test microorganisms, while methanol fraction and methanol crude extract produced a concentration dependent antibacterial activity against the organisms. Result of interaction study revealed synergism in some of the combination ratios but the predominant effects were indifference and antagonism. The study has demonstrated that the leaf extract and the polar fraction of the plant, P. muellerianus, possess potent antibacterial effect against various strains of S. aureus. Combination of the extract or the fraction with ciprofloxacin could be beneficial in treating infections caused by S. aureus.


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