alexa Anti-Retroviral Drug Hepatotoxicity and Risk Factors in HIV Patients with or Without Hepatitis B and C: A Review | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2332-0877

Journal of Infectious Diseases & Therapy
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Review Article

Anti-Retroviral Drug Hepatotoxicity and Risk Factors in HIV Patients with or Without Hepatitis B and C: A Review

Wambani JR1*, Ogola PE2, Arika WM2, Rachuonyo HO4, Kemboi NG2, Lihana R3 and Burugu MW2
1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Kenyatta University, School of Medicine, P.O Box 43844-00100, Nairobi, Kenya
2Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Kenyatta University, School of Pure and Applied Sciences P.O Box 43844-00100, Nairobi, Kenya
3Centre for Virus Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, P.O Box 54840-00200, Nairobi, Kenya
4Department of Microbiology, Kenyatta University School of Pure and Applied Sciences, P.O Box 43844-00100, Nairobi, Kenya
Corresponding Author : Wambani JR
Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences
Kenyatta University, School of Medicine
P.O Box 43844-00100, Nairobi, Kenya
Tel: +254728128031
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: December 12, 2015; Accepted: December 28, 2015; Published: December 31, 2015
Citation: Wambani JR, Ogola PE, Arika WM, Rachuonyo HO, Kemboi NG, et al. (2015) Anti-Retroviral Drug Hepatotoxicity and Risk Factors in HIV Patients with or Without Hepatitis B and C: A Review. J Infect Dis Ther 3:258. doi:10.4172/2332-0877.1000258
Copyright: © 2015 Wambani, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Physicians are treating patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus and/or hepatitis B or hepatitis C in their practice more often. Long-term complications of this diseases are multifactorial and can be related to the virus itself or to adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy. The liver is the main organ for regulating the internal environment of a body. There is no way to compensate for the loss of a liver function. It has major influences on the flow of nutrients as well as controlling carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. Drugs are significant in causing liver injury. More than nine hundred drugs, herbs and toxins have been documented as being hepatotoxic in line with different risk factors. The incidences of severe hepatic injury vary among different study cohorts as well as the differences in risk factors. Patients with a co-infection of HIV and Hepatitis B or C are at a risk of getting liver injury from antiretroviral drugs because the co-infections accelerate liver injury that may lead to cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. The risk of liver damage for those with a monoinfection of HIV alone is lower than in co-infections. This review explores risk factors for hepatotoxicity, its hepatotoxic antiretroviral drugs and the mechanisms of toxicity. It is meant to highlight the hepatotoxic potential of different antiretroviral drugs currently in use by HIV infected individuals.


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