There were no previous reports assessing the effect of tobacco smoke on blood lead levels (BLLs) simultaneously in children and adults in Japan. We investigated the association of passive and active smoking with BLLs in children and adults among the general population in Hokkaido, Japan. One hundred seventy-seven persons (78 males, 99 females) participated in the survey in May, 2014. Age groups of subjects younger than 18 years (age group A) and subjects older than or equal to 18 years (age group B) were designated. The median value of the BLLs was used for us to divide into two groups, such as high and low BLL groups. Age and sex adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence levels (CLs) were estimated with analysis of the logistic regression model. BLLs in age group B were significantly higher than age group A (p=0.023). In age group A, the proportion of subjects living with habitual smokers other than parents in the household was significantly higher in the high BLL group than in the low BLL group (p=0.019). In age group B, currently habitual smoking was significantly associated with increased risk being in the high BLL group (OR=3.17, 95% CL, 1.28-7.86). A duration of smoking longer than or equal to 20 years was significantly associated with increased risk of being in the high BLL group (OR=2.73, 95% CL, 1.07-6.94), BLL is higher in older persons than in younger persons. Active and passive smoking may be associated with high BLLs in adults and children, respectively.