Behavioural, Mucosal and Systemic Immune Parameters in HIV-infected and Uninfected Injection Drug UsersSaurabh Mehandru1*, Sherry Deren2, Sung-Yeon Kang2, Angela Banfield2, Aakash Garg1, Donald Garmon3, Melissa LaMar3 Teresa H Evering3 and Martin Markowitz3
- Corresponding Author:
- Saurabh Mehandru
Mount Sinai School of Medicine
1 Gustave L. Levy Place
New York, NY, USA
Tel: 212 659 9206
Fax: 212 849 2574
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: December 15, 2015; Accepted date: December 28, 2015; Published date: December 31, 2015
Citation: Mehandru S, Deren S, Kang SY, Banfield A, Garg A, et al. (2015) Behavioural, Mucosal and Systemic Immune Parameters in HIVinfected and Uninfected Injection Drug Users. J Addict Res Ther 6:257. doi:10.4172/2155-6105.1000257
Copyright: © 2015 Mehandru S, et al., This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Objective: Injection drug use (IDU) remains a major risk factor for HIV-1 acquisition. The complex interplay between drug use, non-sterile injection, and Hepatitis C remains poorly understood. We conducted a pilot study to determine the effect of IDU on immune parameters among HIV-uninfected and -infected individuals. We hypothesized that IDU could further augment immunological changes associated with HIV-1 infection, which could in turn affect HIV pathogenesis
Methods: HIV-uninfected and -infected subjects with IDU, and non-IDU controls were recruited to obtain socio-demographic and drug-related behaviours. Blood (PBMC) and mucosal (MMC) mononuclear cells were analysed for cellular markers of immune activation (CD38 and Ki67). Serum ELISA was performed to determine levels of soluble CD14, a marker of immune activation.
Results: No significant quantitative differences in CD4+ and CD8+ T cell levels were observed between IDU and non-IDU subjects when accounting for the presence of HIV-1 infection. However, increased levels of cellular and soluble markers of immune activation were documented in cells and plasma of HIV-uninfected IDU subjects compared to non-injectors. Additionally, sharing of injection paraphernalia was related to immune activation among HIV-uninfected IDU subjects.
Conclusion: IDU, with or without HIV-1 infection, results in a significant increase in immune activation in both the peripheral blood and the GI tract. This may have significant impact on HIV transmission, pathogenesis, and immunologic responses to combination antiviral therapy. This study provides compelling preliminary results which in turn support larger studies to better define the relationship between IDU, infection with HIV-1, co-infection with Hepatitis C and immunity.