Dersleri yüzünden oldukça stresli bir ruh haline sikiş hikayeleri bürünüp özel matematik dersinden önce rahatlayabilmek için amatör pornolar kendisini yatak odasına kapatan genç adam telefonundan porno resimleri açtığı porno filmini keyifle seyir ederek yatağını mobil porno okşar ruh dinlendirici olduğunu iddia ettikleri özel sex resim bir masaj salonunda çalışan genç masör hem sağlık hem de huzur sikiş için gelip masaj yaptıracak olan kadını gördüğünde porn nutku tutulur tüm gün boyu seksi lezbiyenleri sikiş dikizleyerek onları en savunmasız anlarında fotoğraflayan azılı erkek lavaboya geçerek fotoğraflara bakıp koca yarağını keyifle okşamaya başlar
Effectiveness of Nanomaterial Copper Cold Spray Surfaces on Inactivation of Influenza A Virus | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2155-952X

Journal of Biotechnology & Biomaterials
Open Access

Like us on:

Our Group organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations
700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)

Research Article

Effectiveness of Nanomaterial Copper Cold Spray Surfaces on Inactivation of Influenza A Virus

Sundberg K*, Champagne V, McNally B, Helfritch D and Sisson R

Materials Science and Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA, USA

Corresponding Author:
Kristin Sundberg
Materials Science and Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute
Worcester, MA 01609, USA
Tel: 978-844-4511
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date:: September 10, 2015; Accepted date:: October 14, 2015; Published date:: October 21, 2015

Citation: Sundberg K, Champagne V, McNally B, Helfritch D, Sisson R (2015) Effectiveness of Nanomaterial Copper Cold Spray Surfaces on Inactivation of Influenza A Virus. J Biotechnol Biomater 5:205. doi:10.4172/2155-952X.1000205

Copyright: © 2015 Sundberg K, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Bacterial and viral contamination of touch surfaces allows for transmission of pathogens leading to increased risk of infection. Previous work has demonstrated the antimicrobial properties of copper for contact-killing of microbes for use in hospitals. Less research exists on copper as an antiviral surface and on the effects of nanomaterial copper surfaces in the contact-killing of viruses. Nano agglomerate and conventional copper powder feedstock is used in the cold spray process to form copper coatings on aluminum substrates. The nano and conventional copper surfaces formed are tested for antiviral contact-killing of influenza A virus. After a two hour exposure to the surfaces, the surviving influenza A virus was assayed and the results compared. The differences in the powder feedstock used to produce the test surfaces were examined in order to explain the mechanism that caused the observed differences in influenza A virus killing efficiency. Results showed that the nano copper surface was antiviral, but less effective than a study on antimicrobial killing of MRSA on copper surfaces. The nano copper surface was more effective at percent reduction of influenza A virus than that of conventional copper. It was determined that the work hardening caused by the cold spray process in combination with the high number of grain boundaries results in a copper microstructure that enhances ionic diffusion. Copper ion diffusion is the principle mechanism for microbial and viral destruction on copper surfaces. Testing determined significant microbiologic differences between nano- and conventional Cu surfaces and demonstrates the importance of nano copper surfaces as an antiviral agent. The nano agglomerate powder shows superior antiviral effectiveness to that of conventional Cu due to an increase in grain boundaries at the nano level. Further research is needed to determine the effects of nano and conventional copper surface roughness on the contact-killing rate of viruses versus microbes on both a micro and nano-scale.


Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language

Google Scholar citation report
Citations : 1820

Journal of Biotechnology & Biomaterials received 1820 citations as per Google Scholar report

Indexed In
  • Index Copernicus
  • Google Scholar
  • Sherpa Romeo
  • Open J Gate
  • Genamics JournalSeek
  • Academic Keys
  • ResearchBible
  • China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI)
  • Access to Global Online Research in Agriculture (AGORA)
  • Electronic Journals Library
  • RefSeek
  • Hamdard University
  • OCLC- WorldCat
  • SWB online catalog
  • Virtual Library of Biology (vifabio)
  • Publons
  • Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research
  • Euro Pub
Recommended Journals
Share This Page