Dersleri yüzünden oldukça stresli bir ruh haline sikiş hikayeleri bürünüp özel matematik dersinden önce rahatlayabilmek için amatör pornolar kendisini yatak odasına kapatan genç adam telefonundan porno resimleri açtığı porno filmini keyifle seyir ederek yatağını mobil porno okşar ruh dinlendirici olduğunu iddia ettikleri özel sex resim bir masaj salonunda çalışan genç masör hem sağlık hem de huzur sikiş için gelip masaj yaptıracak olan kadını gördüğünde porn nutku tutulur tüm gün boyu seksi lezbiyenleri sikiş dikizleyerek onları en savunmasız anlarında fotoğraflayan azılı erkek lavaboya geçerek fotoğraflara bakıp koca yarağını keyifle okşamaya başlar
Reach Us +44-330-822-4832


Metabolic Syndrome in Relation to Body Mass Index and Waist to Hip Ratio; A Study in Kumasi Metropolis | OMICS International | Abstract

Our Group organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations
700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)

Research Article

Metabolic Syndrome in Relation to Body Mass Index and Waist to Hip Ratio; A Study in Kumasi Metropolis

Mohammed S Adamu1*, William KBA Owiredu2 and Plange-Rhule J3
1School of Medical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Ghana
2Department of Molecular Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, KNUST Kumasi, Ghana
3Department of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, KNUST Kumasi, Ghana
Corresponding Author : Mohammed Saanid Adamu
School of Medical Sciences
University of Cape Coast
University Post Office
Cape Coast-Ghana
Tel: +233-20-8184824
Received December 23, 2013; Accepted February 14, 2014; Published February 17, 2014
Citation: Adamu MS, Owiredu WKBA, Plange-Rhule J (2014) Metabolic Syndrome in Relation to Body Mass Index and Waist to Hip Ratio; A Study in Kumasi Metropolis. J Obes Weight Loss Ther 4:211. doi:10.4172/2165-7904.1000211
Copyright: © 2014 Adamu MS, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and examine the risk associations between obesity indexes [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR)], cardiovascular risk factors [plasma glucose, cholesterol and blood pressure] and morbidity conditions (type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia) in the Kumasi metropolis. Three hundred and eighty seven Penteco- Charismatic Ghanaian subjects (18–85 years of age) were recruited from Pentecost Church Santasi, and the Bantama and Old Tafo Assembly of God Churches in Kumasi, Ghana. The parameters determined on the subjects included: height; weight; waist and hip circumferences; blood pressure; fasting plasma glucose and cholesterol. There were 267 females (69%) and 120 (31%) males with mean age 41.36 ± 13.59 years. Mean BMI was 25.85 ± 5.89 kg/m2 and 22.61 ± 3.48 kg/m2 in male and female subjects respectively. Mean WC measurement was 35.41 ± 4.93 in and mean WHR was 0.86 ± 0.11. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 8.0%, while in females and males were 10.86% and 1.67% respectively. The prevalence of diabetes was 5.0%, while in females it was 6.4% and 3.3% in males. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 32.04%, 39.0% in females and males of 16.7%. There were increasing trends between obesity indices and the severity of cardiovascular risk factors and the prevalence of morbidity conditions (all P-values for trend <0.05). Patients with a greater number of comorbidities also had higher BMI, WC, and WHR measurements (all P-values for the trend were <0.05 with adjustment for age and gender). Hence, despite Penteco-Charismatic Ghanaian subjects being less obese than Caucasians and Western countries, the intimate relationships among obesity, cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity conditions remain. Our data support using BMI and WC as part of routine clinical evaluation of patients to define obesity and its associated health risks. The results suggest that prevention of obesity, particularly central obesity; healthy living, lifestyle modification and exercising could be the most direct route to prevention of Metabolic Syndrome and its complications.


Google Scholar citation report
Citations : 1860

Journal of Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy received 1860 citations as per Google Scholar report

Journal of Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy peer review process verified at publons
Indexed In
  • Index Copernicus
  • Google Scholar
  • Open J Gate
  • Genamics JournalSeek
  • Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences International (CABI)
  • RefSeek
  • Hamdard University
  • OCLC- WorldCat
  • SWB online catalog
  • CABI full text
  • Cab direct
  • Publons
  • Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research
  • Euro Pub
  • University of Bristol
  • Pubmed
Share This Page