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ISSN: 2155-6105

Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
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Research Article

Practices and Attitudes of Addiction Treatment Providers in the Russian Federation

Mikhail N. Torban1*, Robert Heimer2, Ruslan D. Ilyuk1 and Evgeny M. Krupitsky1
1Department of Addictions, St. Petersburg Psychoneurological Research Institute named after V.M. Bekhterev, , 3 Bekhterev St., 192019 Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation
2School of Public Health, Yale University, 60 College Street New Haven, CT 06520-8034, United States
*Corresponding Author: Mikhail N. Torban, Department of Addictions, St. Petersburg Psychoneurological Research Institute named after V.M. Bekhterev, 3 Bekhterev St., 192019 Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, Tel: 1 203 393 5987, Fax: 1 203 764 4353, Email: [email protected]

Received Date: Jan 29, 2011 / Accepted Date: Mar 08, 2011 / Published Date: Mar 09, 2011

Citation: Torban MN, Heimer R, Ilyuk RD, Krupitsky EM (2011) Practices and Attitudes of Addiction Treatment Providers in the Russian Federation. J Addict Res Ther 2:104.DOI: 10.4172/2155-6105.1000104

Copyright: © 2010 Torban MN, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

 

Abstract

Objectives: The illicit drugs currently being distributed across European countries under street- name “crack” contain to a large extent alkaloids derived from cocaine and later on were classified as stimulant drug. However this same street name prevalent in Iran seemingly have no stimulant effects but sort of opioids being produced in clandestine laboratories likely to be made of heroin. In current study we carried out an analysis on illicit drugs under street name of crack discovered and confiscated by Iranian law enforcement police in Arak city in 2009 to make its true formulation clear.

Material& Methods: The current observational descriptive cross sectional study was carried on twenty-two samples under street name “crack” as is common name among drug peddlers or law enforcement police. Following sample extraction, screening test was conducted by thin layer chromatography (TLC) only to be later on confirmed through gas chromatography with mass spectrophotometry (GC/MS).

Results: Diacetyl morphine (heroin) was found in twenty-one unit of twenty-two analyzed samples using TLC method. In addition morphine, codeine, caffeine, noscapine, papaverine, dextromethorphan and acetyl codeine were discovered in samples applying GC/MS method.

Conclusion: Heroin with relatively high purity is the main constituent of the illicit drugs under street name “crack” in Iran. Medical and public awareness raising and education about true nature of this illicit drug and its adverse effects needs to be run to prevent the widespread abuse particularly among teens.

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