Dersleri yüzünden oldukça stresli bir ruh haline sikiş hikayeleri bürünüp özel matematik dersinden önce rahatlayabilmek için amatör pornolar kendisini yatak odasına kapatan genç adam telefonundan porno resimleri açtığı porno filmini keyifle seyir ederek yatağını mobil porno okşar ruh dinlendirici olduğunu iddia ettikleri özel sex resim bir masaj salonunda çalışan genç masör hem sağlık hem de huzur sikiş için gelip masaj yaptıracak olan kadını gördüğünde porn nutku tutulur tüm gün boyu seksi lezbiyenleri sikiş dikizleyerek onları en savunmasız anlarında fotoğraflayan azılı erkek lavaboya geçerek fotoğraflara bakıp koca yarağını keyifle okşamaya başlar


Relevance of Reaction of Lead Compounds with Carboxylic acid in Lead Recovery from Secondary Sources | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2168-9806

Journal of Powder Metallurgy & Mining
Open Access

Our Group organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations
700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)

Research Article

Relevance of Reaction of Lead Compounds with Carboxylic acid in Lead Recovery from Secondary Sources

Vasant Kumar R1*, Jiakuan Yang2 and Seref Sonmez3

1Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ, UK

2School of of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei, 430074, China

3Department of Materials & Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Chemistry and Metallurgy, Istanbul Technical University, 34436, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey

*Corresponding Author:
Vasant Kumar R
Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy
University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ, UK

Received Date: February 28, 2013; Accepted Date: March 13, 2013; Published Date: March 20, 2013

Citation: Vasant Kumar R, Yang J, Sonmez S (2013) Relevance of Reaction of Lead Compounds with Carboxylic acid in Lead Recovery from Secondary Sources. J Powder Metall Min 2:107. doi: 10.4172/2168-9806.1000107

Copyright: © 2013 Vasant Kumar R, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Lead in spent batteries is in the form of lead sulphate (PbSO4) along with lead oxides and a small proportion of metallic lead. It is recovered as lead by using energy intensive decomposition and reduction process. Dried powder from the spent lead paste and lead-alloy grid from used battery is charged in smelters either in stand alone reactors or more often with lead concentrates derived from lead sulphide ores. Decomposition of PbSO4 requires the use of relatively high temperature (typically >1000°C) using fossil fuel as the source of energy. The smelting route is associated with CO2 greenhouse gas emission, pollutants emission of lead fumes and SO2 and energy consumption of several KWh per Kg of lead thus treated.

A new process of recovering lead directly from spent battery paste as PbO precursor for making new paste has been developed. In this new environmentally sound, paste to paste process, the net-carbon, SO2 and lead dust emissions are very low towards making new batteries without the use of high temperature pyrometallurgy or the energy-intensive electrowinning processes. By reacting spent lead battery paste with organic reagents and then combusting the organic crystallites, high surface area PbO is directly available for making pastes for new batteries.

In this paper the importance of the chemical reactions between the lead compounds and the organic carboxylic acids are discussed.