The Effect of Caffeine and Choline Combinations on Short-term Visual and Auditory Memory | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2167-065X

Clinical Pharmacology & Biopharmaceutics
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Research Article

The Effect of Caffeine and Choline Combinations on Short-term Visual and Auditory Memory

Natasha Nagrecha, Vincent J Giannetti, Paula A Witt-Enderby, Jamie L McConaha and David A Johnson*
Mylan School of Pharmacy and Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, USA
Corresponding Author : David A Johnson, Ph.D
Mylan School of Pharmacy and Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Duquesne University, 600 Forbes Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15282, USA
Tel: 412 396 5952
Fax: 412 396 4660
E-mail: [email protected]
Received July 16, 2013; Accepted August 28, 2013; Published August 30, 2013
Citation: Nagrecha N, Giannetti VJ, Witt-Enderby PA, McConaha JL, Johnson DA (2013) The Effect of Caffeine and Choline Combinations on Short-term Visual and Auditory Memory. Clin Pharmacol Biopharm 2:112. doi:10.4172/2167-065X.1000112
Copyright: © 2013 Nagrecha N, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


The purpose of this randomized control trial was to determine whether choline in combination with several doses of caffeine, could facilitate short-term visual and verbal memory and attention in adult and middle aged human subjects with normal cognitive function. The effects of several doses of caffeine in combination with choline on short-term visual and verbal memory, blood pressure and heart rate were assessed in 125 healthy adult and middle-aged men and women using six standardized tests from the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, Second Edition (WRAML 2). Tests included: Verbal Learning, Design Memory, Picture Memory, Story Memory, Finger Windows and Number/Letter. Group comparisons utilized one-way analysis of variance with Dunnett’s test post-hoc. Subjects administered caffeine 25 mg/choline 2 g scored significantly higher on tests for short-term visual memory than the placebo group. Conversely, the caffeine 50 mg/choline 2 g treatment group scored significantly lower on tests for short-term verbal memory and attention than the placebo group. There were no significant differences in memory test scores between men and women and no significant changes in blood pressure or heart rate following administration of any of the treatment combinations. These results suggest that oral caffeine 25 mg in combination with choline 2 g may enhance short-term memory in healthy adults without affecting cardiovascular function.


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