alexa

GET THE APP

Dersleri yüzünden oldukça stresli bir ruh haline sikiş hikayeleri bürünüp özel matematik dersinden önce rahatlayabilmek için amatör pornolar kendisini yatak odasına kapatan genç adam telefonundan porno resimleri açtığı porno filmini keyifle seyir ederek yatağını mobil porno okşar ruh dinlendirici olduğunu iddia ettikleri özel sex resim bir masaj salonunda çalışan genç masör hem sağlık hem de huzur sikiş için gelip masaj yaptıracak olan kadını gördüğünde porn nutku tutulur tüm gün boyu seksi lezbiyenleri sikiş dikizleyerek onları en savunmasız anlarında fotoğraflayan azılı erkek lavaboya geçerek fotoğraflara bakıp koca yarağını keyifle okşamaya başlar
Prevention of Healthcare-Associated Infections: Which Sampling Method should be used to Evaluate Air Bio-Contamination in Operating Rooms?
ISSN: 2161-1165
Epidemiology: Open Access

Like us on:

Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business
  • Editorial   
  • Epidemiol 2012, Vol 2(3): e106
  • DOI: 10.4172/2161-1165.1000e106

Prevention of Healthcare-Associated Infections: Which Sampling Method should be used to Evaluate Air Bio-Contamination in Operating Rooms?

Christian Napoli1,2*
1Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, University of Bari, Bari, Italy
2National Centre for Epidemiology, Surveillance and Health Promotion, National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy
*Corresponding Author: Christian Napoli, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, University of Bari, Italy, Email: [email protected]

Received: 26-Oct-2012 / Accepted Date: 26-Oct-2012 / Published Date: 29-Oct-2012 DOI: 10.4172/2161-1165.1000e106 /

Environmental matrices (water, air and surfaces) can act as reservoirs of microorganisms and may play an important role as vehicles of infection. This is particularly relevant in health care facilities where patients are more susceptible to infective complications. Thus, several scientific contributions concerning the control of environmental contamination in hospital were produced in order to reduce the risk of healthcare-associated infections [1-6], and many authors underline the importance of microbial surveillance of hospital environmental matrices [7-14]. In this context, microbiological monitoring of air quality is useful to determine the potential exposure of individuals at risk; moreover, in operating rooms it could be used to check the efficiency of both the Conditioned and Controlled Ventilation System (CCVS) and the team’s hygiene procedures [15]. Nevertheless, while the evaluation of water contamination is based on standardized sampling and processing protocols and well defined threshold values [4,16], methods for air and surface sampling are still being debated [4-6]. In fact, with regard to air bio-contamination in operating rooms, the unique international standard norm propose different systems (active or passive sampling) and different samplers to be used, thus leaving the choice of method open [5,6].

In active monitoring the air sampler draws a known volume of air through or over a culture media or a nitrocellulose membrane. After incubation at specific temperature, the microorganisms present on the culture media are measured in CFU (colony forming units)/m3 of air. This system is applicable when the concentration of microorganisms is low, such as in hospital controlled environments [4-6,17]. Passive monitoring uses standard Petri dishes containing culture media, which are exposed to the air sedimentation for a given time in order to collect biological particles which fall out. The dishes are then incubated and results are expressed in CFU/plate/time or in CFU/m2/hour [18]. This method measures the predictable part of the airborne microorganism which sediment onto a critical surface, such as in the surgical cut [19].

Several studies have compared the two sampling methods with discordant results; in some studies the results of sampling using the two methods significantly correlate in the same way, [14,15,20-22] while other studies did not show any correlation [23,24]. Friberg et al. even proposed an equation that permits the transformation of the number of CFUs settling on a plate over 1 h (CFU/plate/h) into air contamination units (CFU/m3) [25,26]. The problem is that, since air sampling protocols are not standardized, it is difficult to compare results from different studies [6,15].

Sampling can also be carried out in different moments: during the surgical activity (in operational) and before the start of the surgical practice (at rest), when the room is empty [5]. A recent study, demonstrates that when a strict protocol is followed results of SAS active method and IMA passive sampling correlate in a comparable way with the quality of air for both at rest and in operational sampling [15]. In facts, the Authors used two different protocols of sampling: one at rest and one in operational, taking into account the different features of the two moments.

Additionally, if one of the principal causes of air bio-contamination is the surgical team, the results from the general room monitoring systems may underestimate the real risk of exposure to the patient on the surgical table, which may be surrounded by air with a higher level of micro-organisms. To evaluate this hypothesis, another recent study investigates and compares the levels of air contamination measured with SAS and IMA systems (both posed approximately 1 meter from the surgical table), and also evaluated the level of air contamination near the wound using nitrocellulose membranes positioned immediately beside the surgical cut [27]. The authors demonstrates that the results of the three methods correlate in the same way, but total viable counts (TVC) is greater for the membrane sampling method and the number of samples positive for Staphylococcus aureus is significantly higher for the membranes compared to the other two sampling methods. Therefore the authors conclude that an air sampling system near the surgical wound may be the best way to identify the risk of exposure to pathogens, and to develop measures for infection control during operations with a high risk of contamination [27].

In light of this scientific background, it is possible to agree with previous literature findings: both methods can be used for general monitoring of air contamination in operating rooms, such as routine surveillance programs, especially when a precise protocol is followed [6,15]. In facts, since many factors influence the results of an air sampling campaign, it was demonstrated that the use of a strict protocol could permit the two methods to correlate in the same way [15]. Unfortunately, at the moment international official documents for bio-contamination control in operating rooms not always provide all the precise recommendation for sampling (precise air volumes to be sampled, length of sampling time etc.). Moreover, the need for strictly standardized sampling protocol is even more urgent if we consider that some of these official documents report threshold values of bio-contamination, but no precise indication on specific sampling procedures to follow [15].

At the same time, as previously stated, the choice must be made between one or the other to obtain specific information [5,15]. In particular, if the air sampling performed during surgery is aimed to monitor the risk of surgical site infections, passive measurement is better than active one at predicting the likely contamination rate at the wound level, as it measures the number of microorganism settling on surfaces [5,6,28]. On the contrary, if the sampling is performed to study the concentration of all inhalable microorganisms, the active method should be preferred [5].

References

  1. Sehulster L, Chinn RY; CDC; HICPAC (2003) Guidelines for environmental infection control in health-care facilities. Recommendations of CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). MMWR Recomm Rep 52: 1-42.
  2. Demir F (2009) A survey on prevention of surgical infections in operating theaters. Worldviews Evid Based Nurs 6: 102-113.
  3. Beldi G, Bisch-Knaden S, Banz V, Mühlemann K, Candinas D (2009) Impact of intraoperative behavior on surgical site infections. Am J Surg 198: 157-162.
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012) Healthcare-associated Infections (HAI)
  5. Technical Committee ISO/TC 209 (2003) Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments-Biocontamination control. Part 1: General principles and methods. UNI, Milano.
  6. Pasquarella C, Albertini R, Dall'aglio P, Saccani E, Sansebastiano GE, et al. (2008) Air microbial sampling: the state of the art. Ig Sanita Pubbl 64: 79-120.
  7. Napoli C, Fasano F, Iatta R, Barbuti G, Cuna T, et al. (2010) Legionella spp. and legionellosis in southeastern Italy: disease epidemiology and environmental surveillance in community and health care facilities. BMC Public Health 10: 660.
  8. Pasquarella C, Sansebastiano GE, Ferretti S, Saccani E, Fanti M, et al. (2007) A mobile laminar airflow unit to reduce air bacterial contamination at surgical area in a conventionally ventilated operating theatre. J Hosp Infect 66: 313-319.
  9. Dharan S, Pittet D (2002) Environmental controls in operating theatres. J Hosp Infect 51: 79-84.
  10. Napoli C, Iatta R, Fasano F, Marsico T, Montagna MT (2009) Variable bacterial load of Legionella spp. in a hospital water system. Sci Total Environ 408: 242-244.
  11. Moretti B, Larocca AM, Napoli C, Martinelli D, Paolillo L, et al. (2009) Active warming systems to maintain perioperative normothermia in hip replacement surgery: a therapeutic aid or a vector of infection? J Hosp Infect 73: 58-63.
  12. Montagna MT, De Giglio O, Napoli C, Lovero G, Caggiano G, et al. (2012) Invasive fungal infections in patients with hematologic malignancies (aurora project): lights and shadows during 18-months surveillance. Int J Mol Sci 13: 774-787.
  13. Pasquarella C, Veronesi L, Castiglia P, Liguori G, Montagna MT, et al. (2010) Italian multicentre study on microbial environmental contamination in dental clinics: a pilot study. Sc Total Environ  408: 4045-4051.
  14. Pasquarella C, Veronesi L, Napoli C, Castiglia P, Liguori G, et al. (2012) Microbial environmental contamination in Italian dental clinics: A multicenter study yielding recommendations for standardized sampling methods and threshold values. Sci Total Environ 420: 289-299.
  15. Napoli C, Marcotrigiano V, Montagna MT (2012) Air sampling procedures to evaluate microbial contamination: a comparison between active and passive methods in operating theatres. BMC Public Health 12: 594.
  16. Council Directive 98/83/EC of 3 November 1998 on the quality of water intended for human consumption (1998) Official Journal of the European Community L330: 32-54.
  17. Blomquist G (1994) Sampling of biological particles. Analyst 119: 53-56.
  18. Pasquarella C, Pitzurra O, Savino A (2000) The index of microbial air contamination. J Hosp Infect 46: 241-256.
  19. French MLV, Eitzen HE, Ritter MA, Leland DS (1980) Environmental control of microbial contamination in the operating room. Appleton-Century Crofis, New York.
  20. Whyte W (1986) Sterility assurance and models for assessing airborne bacterial contamination. J Parenter Sci Technol 40: 188-197.
  21. Orpianesi C, Cresci A, La Rosa F, Saltalamacchia G, Tarsi R (1983) Evaluation of microbial contamination in a hospital environment. Comparison between the Surface Air System and the traditional method. Nuovi Ann Ig Microbiol 34: 171-185.
  22. Perdelli F, Sartini M, Orlando M, Secchi V, Cristina ML (2000) Relationship between settling microbial load and suspended microbial load in operating rooms. Ann Ig 12: 373-380.
  23. Petti S, Iannazzo S, Tarsitani G (2003) Comparison between different methods to monitor the microbial level of indoor air contamination in the dental office. Ann Ig 15: 725-733.
  24. Sayer WJ, MacKnight NM, Wilson HW (1972) Hospital airborne bacteria as estimated by the Andersen sampler versus the gravity settling culture plate. Am J Clin Pathol 58: 558-566.
  25. Friberg B, Friberg S, Burman LG (1999) Correlation between surface and air counts of particles carrying aerobic bacteria in operating rooms with turbulent ventilation: an experimental study. J Hosp Infect 42: 61-68.
  26. Friberg B, Friberg S, Burman LG (1999) Inconsistent correlation between aerobic bacterial surface and air counts in operating rooms with ultra clean laminar air flows: proposal of a new bacteriological standard for surface contamination. J Hosp Infect 42: 287-293.
  27. Napoli C, Tafuri S, Montenegro L, Cassano M, Notarnicola A, et al. (2012) Air sampling methods to evaluate microbial contamination in operating theatres: results of a comparative study in an orthopaedics department. J Hosp Infect 80: 128-132.
  28. Whyte W (1996) In support of settle plates. PDA J Pharm Sci Technol 50: 201-204.

Citation: Napoli C (2012) Prevention of Healthcare-Associated Infections: Which Sampling Method should be used to Evaluate Air Bio-Contamination in Operating Rooms? Epidemiol 2:e106. Doi: 10.4172/2161-1165.1000e106

Copyright: © 2012 Napoli C. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language

Post Your Comment Citation
Share This Article
Recommended Conferences
Article Usage
  • Total views: 13027
  • [From(publication date): 12-2012 - Jan 27, 2023]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views: 8769
  • PDF downloads: 4258
Share This Article
Top