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Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is defined as an organ dysfunction caused by intra-abdominal hypertension
(IAH). Up to 4.2% of the patients in intensive care unit may develop IAH with it being an independent predictor of mortality.
However, overall, it still remains a relatively underdiagnosed condition, part in because physical examination alone is very
unreliable. Acute kidney injury is one of the most consistently described organ dysfunctions with oliguria being one of the earliest
clinical signs of IAH. We recommend that any patient with evidence of new onset oliguria in the setting of distended abdomen,
unexplained respiratory failure, with or without hypotension should be suspected of having IAH/ACS. Intravesicular pressure
measurement represents a safe, rapid, and cost-effective method of diagnosing IAH. We hereby review the pathophysiology,
diagnosis, and management of ACS and its association with acute kidney injury.
Aditi Ranade, M.D. is Board Certified in Pathology. She completed her residency at St. Luke?s Roosevelt Hospital Center, Columbia University
College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY. At present she is doing her fellowship in Oncological Pathology at the world renowned Memorial
Sloan Kettering Hospital, New York. Prior to coming to the USA, Dr. Ranade received her medical degree in 2003 from the University of Pune,
India and subsequently a post-graduate degree in pathology from the University of Pune, India in 2007. Apart from her clinical duties, her research
interests have focused on cancer and infectious diseases. Her research has been published in leading peer-reviewed medical journals. Dr. Ranade
is a reviewer for various journals, including Pathology Research and Practice; Journal of Nephrology & Therapeutics and serves on the editorial
Board of Anatomy & Physiology and Journal of Fertilization:
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