Dersleri yüzünden oldukça stresli bir ruh haline sikiş hikayeleri bürünüp özel matematik dersinden önce rahatlayabilmek için amatör pornolar kendisini yatak odasına kapatan genç adam telefonundan porno resimleri açtığı porno filmini keyifle seyir ederek yatağını mobil porno okşar ruh dinlendirici olduğunu iddia ettikleri özel sex resim bir masaj salonunda çalışan genç masör hem sağlık hem de huzur sikiş için gelip masaj yaptıracak olan kadını gördüğünde porn nutku tutulur tüm gün boyu seksi lezbiyenleri sikiş dikizleyerek onları en savunmasız anlarında fotoğraflayan azılı erkek lavaboya geçerek fotoğraflara bakıp koca yarağını keyifle okşamaya başlar
Reach Us +44 1223 790975


Panax Quinquefolium Attenuates Depression-like Behavior Through Modulating Nitric Oxide Pathway In Olfactory Bulbectomized Rats | 12552
ISSN: 2161-0460

Journal of Alzheimers Disease & Parkinsonism
Open Access

Like us on:

Our Group organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations
700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)
Recommended Conferences

5th World Brain Congress

Rome, Italy
Google Scholar citation report
Citations : 3123

Journal of Alzheimers Disease & Parkinsonism received 3123 citations as per Google Scholar report

Journal of Alzheimers Disease & Parkinsonism peer review process verified at publons
Indexed In
  • Index Copernicus
  • Google Scholar
  • Sherpa Romeo
  • Open J Gate
  • Genamics JournalSeek
  • Academic Keys
  • JournalTOCs
  • China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI)
  • Electronic Journals Library
  • RefSeek
  • Hamdard University
  • OCLC- WorldCat
  • SWB online catalog
  • Virtual Library of Biology (vifabio)
  • Publons
  • Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research
  • Euro Pub
Share This Page

Panax quinquefolium attenuates depression-like behavior through modulating nitric oxide pathway in olfactory bulbectomized rats

International Conference on Psychology, Autism and Alzheimers Disease

Puneet Rinwa

Accepted Abstracts: J Alzheimers Dis Parkinsonism

DOI: 10.4172/2161-0460.S1.004

Olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) is a well known screening model for depression. Panax quinquefolium (PQ) is known for its therapeutic potential against several psychiatric disorders. Nitric oxide (NO), an intercellular messenger has been suggested to play a major role in the pathogenesis of depression. The present study was designed to explore the possible involvement of NO mechanism in the protective effect of PQ against olfactory bulbectomy induced depression. Wistar rats were bulbectomized surgically and kept for a rehabilitation period of two weeks. PQ (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg; p.o.) alone and in combination with NO modulators like L-NAME (10 mg/kg, i.p.) and L-arginine (100 mg/kg; i.p.) were then administered daily for another two weeks. Ablation of olfactory bulbs caused depression-like symptoms as evidenced by increased immobility time in forced swim test, hyperactivity in open field arena, and anhedonic like response in sucrose preference test. Further, OBX caused elevation in serum corticosterone levels and increased oxidative-nitrosative damage. These deficits were integrated with increased levels of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?), apoptotic factor (caspase-3) and a marked reduction in neurogenesis factor (BDNF) in both cortex and hippocampus region of bulbectomized rat brains. Treatment with PQ significantly and dose-dependently restored the behavioral, biochemical and molecular alterations associated with OBX. Further, pretreatment of L-NAME with subeffective dose of PQ (100 mg/kg) significantly potentiated its protective effects; however L-arginine pretreatment reversed their beneficial effects. Present study suggests that protective effect of Panax quinquefolium might be due to possible modulation of nitric oxide pathway against olfactory bulbectomy-induced depression.