Plants respond to different pests and pathogens by activating a set of resistance genes that involve in substantial transcriptional reprogramming integrating hormonal, metabolic, and physiological movements . These cumulative downstream defense responses alleviate pathogen and pest by subsequent local or systemic induced resistance. Hormone signaling and trans-acting regulatory factors/ Transcription factors (TFs) are the major factors that facilitate downstream defense responses in plants . Approximately, 7% of plant genome coding sequences represent TFs . Among many different type of TFs available in plants, the most common TFs mainly belong to six groups; AP2/ERF, MYB, BZIP, WRKY, MYC and NAC . There is no exact mechanism or correlation between the type of TFs and plant defense signaling. AP2/ERF TFs were found to be mainly involved in Jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) signal transduction while, WRKY and bZIP TFs were mostly involved in salicylic acid (SA) mediated signal transduction. TFs encoding genes may be differentially regulated (up or down) by different stresses and substantial overlap occurs in the defense pathways allow integration of different defense signal and thereby, fine tune the Plant defense to pathogen/pest attack.
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Author(s): Nidhi Rawat
Plant Defense, Rice and Nutrition