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Cell signalling is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions. The ability of cells to perceive and correctly respond to their microenvironment is the basis of development, tissue repair, and immunity, as well as normal tissue homeostasis. Errors in signalling interactions and cellular information processing are responsible for diseases such as cancer, autoimmunity, and diabetes. Systems biology research helps us to understand the underlying structure of cell signalling networks and how changes in these networks may affect the transmission and flow of information (signal transduction). Such networks are complex systems in their organization and may exhibit a number of emergent properties including bistability and ultra-sensitivity. Analysis of cell signalling networks requires a combination of experimental and theoretical approaches including the development and analysis of simulations and modelling.