Description of the country:
The United States of America, the third largest country by size in the world, occupies the middle portion of the North American continent. The country is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. Along the northern border is Canada and the southern border is Mexico.
Geography of the country:
The U.S. is generally divided into six large regions: New England; the mid-Atlantic; the South; the Midwest; the Southwest, and the West. There are 50 states and the District of Columbia. Denali (Mt. McKinley) is the highest point in North America and Death Valley the lowest point on the continent. USA is about half the size of Russia; about three-tenths the size of Africa; about half the size of South America (or slightly larger than Brazil); slightly larger than China; more than twice the size of the European Union.
Status of economy, research and development:
The US has the most technologically powerful economy in the world, with a per capita GDP of $54,800. US firms are at or near the forefront in technological advances, especially in computers, pharmaceuticals, and medical, aerospace, and military equipment; however, their advantage has narrowed since the end of World War II. Based on a comparison of GDP measured at Purchasing Power Parity conversion rates, the US economy in 2014, having stood as the largest in the world for more than a century, slipped into second place behind China, which has more than tripled the US growth rate for each year of the past four decades. The United States has been a leader in scientific research and technological innovation producing Interchangeable parts, machine tool industry, large scale manufacturing of sewing machines, bicycles microprocessors such as Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), and Intel along with both computer software and hardware companies that include Adobe Systems, Apple Computer, IBM, GNU-Linux, Microsoft, and Sun Microsystems created and popularized the personal computer. The ARPANET was developed in the 1960s to meet Defense Department requirements, and became the first of a series of networks which evolved into the Internet.
Status about the different subjects in which extensive research is going on:
In Earth Science, USA has accounted for 25 Nobel laureates so far. USA has extensive earth science research funding from renowned agencies primarily NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), NGS (The National Geographic Society), USGCRP (U. S. Global Change Research Program ) and other agencies such as USGS, NIEHS, AFRI, BRF, CEROS, CSEDI, EPA, HRF, IAI, IODP, IRIS, MAB, MCEER, NASM, NIEHS, NOAA, NYSDEC, U.S. GLOBEC. According to the report by SJR, USA is ranked number 1 in publishing highest number of articles in Earth and Planetary Sciences. Several leading Earth study Institutes in the country include Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory, University of California, Berkeley (UCB), Stanford University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Wageningen University and Harvard University.