Brazil officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the fifth largest country by both area and population. Brazil is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language, and the only one in the Americas.
It is bounded by Atlantic Ocean on the east; it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and occupies 47.3 percent of the continent of South America.
Brazil has the world's seventh largest economy by nominal GDP, and the seventh largest by purchasing power parity. The Brazilian economy is characterized by moderately free markets and an inward-oriented economy. Expenditures for research and development are current and capital expenditures (both public and private) on creative work undertaken systematically to increase knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture, and society, and the use of knowledge for new applications. R&D covers basic research, applied research, and experimental development.
In Physics, Medicine and Chemistry, this Country nation produced 1 Nobel laureates so far. Ecological issues in Brazil incorporate deforestation in the Amazon Basin, illicit natural life exchange, unlawful poaching, air and water contamination, land debasement and water contamination brought about by mining exercises, wetland corruption and extreme oil slicks, among others. NumerousEnvironmental journals
are published from Canada like, Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology, with good reputation. Several leading Institution in the country including Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources, Ministry of the Environment and others are spearheading the Environmental research.