Italy is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe having largely temperate seasonal climate. Italy shares open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, San Marino and Vatican City.
Italy is located in Southern Europe, between latitudes 35° and 47° N, and longitudes 6° and 19° E. The climate of Italy is highly diverse ranges from humid subtropical to humid continental and oceanic. The country is situated at the meeting point of the Eurasian Plate and the African Plate, leading to considerable seismic and volcanic activity.
Italy is the 4th-largest national economy in Europe, the 8th-largest by nominal GDP in the world, and the 12th-largest by GDP (PPP). Italy is the eighth largest exporter in the world. Italy is 8th in the global scientific publication ranking and its number of patents has increased 21% over the 2001-2006 period.
In Physics, Medicine and Literature, Italy produced 20 Nobel laureates so far. List of environmental journals of Italy provides the research related to the Ecosystem, environment and pollution and list of journals that publish relevant quality of articles with peer reviewing.