Japan is an Asian island country located in the Pacific region and a neighbor of P.R. China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia. It is often called as "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago of 6,852 islands.
Japan including all of the islands it controls, lies between latitudes 24° and 46°N, and longitudes 122° and 146°E. Japan is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. About 73 percent of Japan is forested, mountainous, and unsuitable for agricultural, industrial, or residential use. The climate of Japan is predominantly temperate and the average winter temperature in Japan is 5.1 °C and the average summer temperature is 25.2 °C.
The economy of Japan is the third-largest in the world by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP) and is the world's second largest developed economy. Japan's ability to conduct independent research and development became a decisive factor in boosting the nation's competitiveness. The country is pioneer in advanced research in electronics, machinery, biomedical devices, computer science, robotics and medical sciences.
In Physics, Medicine and Chemistry, this island nation produced 21 Nobel laureates so far. The Center for Global Environmental Research (CGER) was established in 1990 as a focal point for Japan's global environmental research. The Center for Environmental Biology and Ecosystem Studies (CEBES) was established as one of the eight research centers of the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) in order to assume a leading role in the nation’s basic and applied research for the area of environmental biology and ecosystems. Numerous environmental journals are published from Japan with good reputation. Several leading Institution in the country including Shimane University, Tottori University of Environmental Studies and others are spearheading the environmental research.