Turkey has been inhabited since the paleolithic age and it including various ancient Anatolian civilizations, Aeolian, Dorian and Ionian Greeks, Thracians, Armenians, and Assyrians. Turkey is a democratic, unitary, secular, constitutional republic with a various cultural heritage. Turkey is a member of the UN, NATO, OECD, OSCE, OIC and the G-20. Turkey's growing economic system and diplomatic initiatives have resulted in its recognition as a regional power.
Geographically, Turkey is the world's 37th-largest country in terms of area. The country is encircled by seas on three sides: the Aegean Sea to the west, the Black Sea to the north and the Mediterranean to the south. Turkey also contains the Sea of Marmara in the northwest. The coastline of Turkey (excluding islands) is 8333 km.
Turkey is also defined by economists and political scientists as one of the world's newly industrialized countries. Turkey has the world's 17th largest GDP by PPP. The country is among the world's leading producers of agricultural products; textiles; motor vehicles, ships and other transportation equipment; construction materials; consumer electronics and home appliances. The country is among the founding members of the OECD and the G-20 major economies. Turkish brands like Beko and Vestel are among the largest producers of consumer electronics and home appliances in Europe, and invest a substantial amount of funds for research and development in new technologies related to these fields.
In Chemistry and Literature, Turkey produced 2 Nobel laureates so far. Several leading Institution in the country including Karadeniz Technical University, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute spearheading the Medical research in the field of Environmental Science. GEBI is the only publicly funded research entity in Turkey, conducting cutting-edge research on the main topics of biotechnology. There are four basic research areas in biotechnology including medical biotechnology, plant biotechnology and agricultural research and bioenergy. Main mission of GEBI as the only national institute in Turkey specialized in biotechnology is to contribute to the national economic development. To reach these goals, in medical biology GEBI scientists are working on the different aspects of medical research such as finding the causes of aneurysmal diseases with different approaches including proteomics. Eminent editor like Cihangir Erem are working in the field of Environmental Science. Numerous Environmental Science Journals are published from Turkey with good reputation.