United Kingdom is an island nation in northwestern Europe. It made up of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The United Kingdom has historically played a leading role in developing parliamentary democracy and in advancing literature and science. United Kingdom is considered as 11th largest country in Europe. The UK is situated north-west of the European continent between the Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea. It has a total land area of 244,100 square kilometres, of which nearly 99% is land and the remainder inland water. From north to south it is about 1,000 kilometres long.
The United Kingdom has the fifth-largest national economy (and second-largest in EU) measured by nominal GDP and ninth-largest in the world (and second-largest in the EU) measured by purchasing power parity (PPP). The UK economy currently makes up 4% of world GDP.
Technological advances enabled UK to be in the list of top countries. The country is pioneer in advanced research in electronics, machinery, biomedical devices, computer science, environment science and medical sciences. With the aim of creating innovation in the field of research and development, United Kingdom is spending more and more expenditure in the research side and therefore gaining good gross domestic product. United Kingdom has established a good platform for environmental science which is growing rapidly in the recent years. The UK plays a leading part in the aerospace industry. The UK continues to play a major role in the development of science and technology and major technological sectors include the aerospace, motor and pharmaceutical industries. In Physiology, physics, chemistry, economics, UK has produced 106 Nobel laureates so far. According to a report by Lee Bell, The UK has advanced in the world ranking of business Information and Communications Technology (ICT) usage, according to the Global Information Technology Report 2012 from the World Economic Forum (WEF).
Between 2004 and 2012 the UK produced 6% of the world's scientific research papers and had an 8% share of scientific citations, the third- and second-highest in the world (after the United States' 9% and China's 7% respectively). Numerous Environmental journals are published from UK with high reputation. Several leading Institution in the country including University of Cambridge, University of Oxford, London School of Economics, Imperial College London, University of Lancaster and others are spreading the advancements of science and technology.