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Brazil is the fifth largest country by both area and population. The agriculture is large and well-developed, while mining, manufacturing, and service sectors are having a significant growth.
Brazil covers almost half of the South American continent and it is bordered to the north, west and south by all South American countries except Chile and Ecuador; to the east is the Atlantic Ocean. Brazil has borders with Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay and Venezuela. In fact, Chile and Ecuador are the only South American countries with which Brazil does not share its borders. Brazil country is split into five official regions they inclue Central-West, Northeast, North, Southeast and Southern Brazil. These are then split into 26 states and a Federal District.
Brazil's economy is the world's ninth largest by nominal GDP and seventh largest by GDP (PPP) as of 2015. Brazil's national development bank plays an important role for the country's economic growth. Major export products include aircraft, electrical equipment, automobiles, ethanol, textiles, footwear, iron ore, steel, coffee, orange juice, soybeans and corned beef.
In Physiology or Medicine, this island nation produced 1 Nobel laureates so far. Brazil research majorly focuses on Newborn screening, Osteogenesis imperfecta, Pregnancy termination. There is a strong presence of genetics within the so called basic cycle, and also a growing approximation with the professional practice, especially with the inclusion of specific disciplines of medical genetics in the clinical cycle. A large number of clinical laboratories now offer testing by molecular biology techniques, not only for genetic diseases but also for infections in addition, there are several laboratories exclusively specialized in the diagnosis of genetic diseases.