Description of Country:
South Africa is a country on the southernmost tip of the African continent, marked by several distinct ecosystems. South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost sovereign state in Africa. It is confined on the south by 2,798 kilometers of coastline of Southern Africa extending along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans, on the north by the adjacent countries of Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe, and on the east by Mozambique and Swaziland, and surrounding the kingdom of Lesotho.
Geography of Country:
South Africa is the 25th-largest country in the world by land area, and with close to 53 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation. It is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Old World or the Eastern Hemisphere. South Africa has a miscellaneous economy, the second largest in Africa after Nigeria. It also has a relatively great GDP per capita compared to other countries in Sub-Saharan Africa ($11,750 at PPP as of 2012). Despite this, South Africa is still troubled by a relatively high rate of poverty and unemployment, and is also ranked in the top 10 countries in the world for income inequality, measured by the Gini coefficient. Several important scientific and technological developments have initiated in South Africa.
Economy of Country:
The economy of South Africa is the second-largest in Africa, behind Nigeria. South Africa accounts for 24 percent of Africa's gross domestic product (PPP), and it is ranked as an upper-middle-income economy by the World Bank – one of only four such countries in Africa (alongside Botswana, Gabon and Mauritius). Since 1996, at the end of over twelve years of international sanctions, South Africa's Gross Domestic Product has almost tripled to $400 billion, and foreign exchange reserves have increased from $3 billion to nearly $50 billion; creating a diversified economy with a growing and sizable middle class, within two decades of establishing democracy and ending apartheid. High levels of unemployment, income inequality, growing public debt, political mismanagement, low levels of education, reliable access to electricity, and crime are all serious problems that have negatively impacted the South African economy. List of Genetic journals serves as good economy.
Research and Development:
The first human-to-human heart transplant was performed by genetic surgeon Christiaan Barnard at Groote Schuur Hospital in December 1967, Max Theiler developed a vaccine against yellow fever, Allan McLeod Cormack pioneered x-ray computed tomography, and Aaron Klug developed crystallographic electron microscopy techniques for diagnosis of genetic disorders. With the exception of that of Barnard, all of these advancements were recognised with Nobel Prizes. Sydney Brenner won most recently, in 2002, for his pioneering work in molecular biology. The Nobel Prize is an yearly, international prize first granted in 1901 for achievements in Genetics, Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace. An associated prize in Economics has been granted since 1969.