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Australia known as the Commonwealth of Australia. Australian English is a major variety of the language with a distinctive accent and lexicon, and differs slightly from other varieties of English in grammar and spelling. Surrounded by the Indian and Pacific oceans. Australia country is known for its Sydney Opera House, Great Barrier Reef, the vast Outback (interior desert wilderness) and unique animal species including kangaroos and duck-billed platypuses. The major cities in Australia are Sydney, New South Wales, Melbourne, Victoria, Brisbane, Queensland, Perth, and Western Australia.
The geography of Australia encompasses a wide variety of biogeographic regions being the world's smallest continent but the sixth-largest country in the world. The geography of the country is extremely diverse, ranging from the snow-capped mountains of the Australian Alps and Tasmania to large deserts, tropical and temperate forests. Australia is the lowest, flattest, and oldest continental landmass on Earth and it has had a relatively stable geological history. Only the south-east and south-west corners have a temperate climate and moderately fertile soil. The northern part of the country has a tropical climate: part is tropical rainforests, part grasslands, and part desert.
The economy of Australia is one of the largest mixed market economies in the world, with a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of AUD $1.62 trillion as of 2015. Australia's total wealth is AUD $6.4 trillion. The Australian economy is dominated by its service sector, comprising 68% of GDP. Australia is the 52nd most populous country in the world. Its population is concentrated mainly in urban areas and is expected to exceed 28 million by 2030. The Endocrine Society of Australia (ESA) is a national non-profit organisation of scientists and clinicians who conduct research and practice in the field of Endocrinology.
National Health and Medical Research Council monitors the funding and integration of the R & D related to medical sciences in the country. And also supporting health and medical research, developing health advice for the Australian community, health professionals and governments, providing advice on ethical behaviour in health care and in the conduct of health and medical research. The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) is a major national agency set up by the Australian Government under the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Act to provide reliable, regular and relevant information and statistics on Australia's health and welfare. According to the information provided by Australian Bureau of statistics, Infectious diseases were a prominent cause of death in Australia from the time of European settlement until the second half of this century. Diseases such as diphtheria, polio, tetanus and tuberculosis are now rare and seldom fatal. Between 1921 and 1995, death rates from infectious diseases declined faster than deaths from all causes. Age-standardised death rates from infectious diseases fell from 185 per 100,000 populations in 1921 to six in 1995. Over the same period, standardised death rates from all causes fell from 1,567 per 100,000 to 645. As a proportion of all deaths, infectious diseases declined from 19% in 1921 to 1% in 1995. Also some major journals related to Infectious diseases providing the more information related to rate of infectious diseases in Australia