Reach Us +33644638872


Dersleri yüzünden oldukça stresli bir ruh haline sikiş hikayeleri bürünüp özel matematik dersinden önce rahatlayabilmek için amatör pornolar kendisini yatak odasına kapatan genç adam telefonundan porno resimleri açtığı porno filmini keyifle seyir ederek yatağını mobil porno okşar ruh dinlendirici olduğunu iddia ettikleri özel sex resim bir masaj salonunda çalışan genç masör hem sağlık hem de huzur sikiş için gelip masaj yaptıracak olan kadını gördüğünde porn nutku tutulur tüm gün boyu seksi lezbiyenleri sikiş dikizleyerek onları en savunmasız anlarında fotoğraflayan azılı erkek lavaboya geçerek fotoğraflara bakıp koca yarağını keyifle okşamaya başlar
Effect of Fish Oil Substitution with Sunflower Oil in Diet of Juvenile Catla catla (Ham) on Growth Performance and Feed Utilization | OMICS International
ISSN: 2332-2608
Journal of Fisheries & Livestock Production
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Effect of Fish Oil Substitution with Sunflower Oil in Diet of Juvenile Catla catla (Ham) on Growth Performance and Feed Utilization

Dalbir SP*, Roopma G, Ritu K, Vaini G and Shivalika R

P.G Department of Zoology, University of Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir 180006, India

*Corresponding Author:
Dalbir SP
P.G Department of Zoology
University of Jammu
Jammu and Kashmir 180006, India
Tel: 0191- 2430830, 2431939
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: July 04, 2015; Accepted Date: August 21, 2015; Published Date: August 28, 2015

Citation: Dalbir SP, Roopma G, Ritu K, Vaini G, Shivalika R (2015) Effect of Fish Oil Substitution with Sunflower Oil in Diet of Juvenile Catla catla (Ham) on Growth Performance and Feed Utilization. J Fisheries Livest Prod 3:144. doi:10.4172/2332-2608.1000144

Copyright: © 2015 Dalbir SP, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Fisheries & Livestock Production


During the present investigation Catla catla fry (0.250 ± 0.008 g) were fed with five iso-nitrogenous (40%) and isolipidic (6%) diets in triplicate @ 5% of body weight, for a period of 60 days. Diet A1 (control)was without supplemented oil i.e., whereas diets A2-A5were supplemented with 3% fish oil (FO) and sunflower oil (SFO) at different proportions i.e. diet A2 with(100% FO), diet A3 (70% FO+30% SFO), diet A4 (50% FO+50% SFO) and diet A5 (70% SFO+30% FO). After the end of 60 days of feeding trail a significant difference (p<0.001) was observed in weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), feed conversion efficiency (FCE ) and survival rate in oil supplemented groups as compared to control. The diet A4 shows the best result with 48.84% (WG), 0.193 (SGR) and 5.81 (FCR) 17.31 (FCE) and 96.81% survival rate. However, there was insignificant difference (p>0.01) in all the growth performance parameters between oil supplemented diets i.e. A2-A5. However, diet A1 (control) registered poorest performance i.e. 42.54% (WG), 0.271 (SGR), 7.75 (FCR), 12.88 (FCE) and 93.56% survival rate. The present result thus clearly revealed that sunflower oil could be partially replace the fish oil up to 50% in supplemented diet without any adverse effect on the growth performance of Catla catla fry, as it is less expensive and easily available.


Fish oil; Sunflower oil; Growth rate parameters; Survival rate; Catla catla


Fish oil derived from wild harvested whole fish currently constitutes the major aquatic protein and lipid source available within the animal feed marketplace. Due to expansion of aquaculture, it is expected that the total use of fish oil by aquaculture sector will decrease in long term. Thus alternatives to use of marine materials in fish feed must be found.

Vegetable oils used as alternative of fish oil consisted lately of an important part of the research on fish nutrition. Nevertheless, lipid digestibility was higher in diets containing vegetable oil than with animal lipid in Atlantic salmon fed diets based on flaxseed oil [1] and in Atlantic halibut fed diets based on vegetable oil [2].

Unlike fish oil, vegetable oils are less expensive and do not accumulate persistent organic pollutants (POPs), thus production costs can be lowered with vegetable oil based diets, as well as contaminant exposure for fish and consumers. Additionally, these feeds will not alter organoleptic properties of the fillets and will be highly digestible for fish.

Dietary lipids play an important role as potential supplier of energy, essential fatty acids and soluble vitamins. They also affect the quality of cultured fish because of their influence on the fatty acid composition of body tissues [3]. The addition of lipids in fish diets contributes to protein sparing by increasing their digestible energy value. Substitution of fish oil (FO) in fish aqua feeds has become inevitable due to the limited global supply of FO [4,5].

Since vegetable oil such as corn, soyabean, peanut, linseed, cotton seed oils contain high levels of n-6 and also significant amounts of n-3 fatty acids, they can be used in Catla catla diets. Takeuchi [6] reported that 5% supplement of corn oil or olive oil resulted in better growth and feed utilization than the addition of cod liver oil.

Thus, the current study investigates the effect of replacement of fish oil with sunflower oil on growth performance parameters, survival rate and body lipid composition of Catla catla fry (Ham.)

Materials and Methods

Culture conditions

Catla catla fry of initial weight 0.250 ± 0.009 were collected from the Govt. Fish Farm Gou Manhasa Jammu. Fish were acclimatized to the experimental conditions for a period of two weeks. During this period, they were fed with rice bran and mustard oil cake (1:1). To determine the initial body composition 20 selected fish on a random basis were killed for biochemical analysis. At the beginning of the experiment, one hundred and twenty five fry were randomly divided into five different groups, the fry were tried in triplicates manner. Fish were kept in plastic tub containers (50 L). Each plastic tub was put in recirculating system maintained at (25 ± 2°C). The entire plastic tub was cleaned up every day in the morning by siphoning off the accumulated waste materials. Fish were then fed with 5% of body weight per day. Each diet was fed twice a day at 9:30 am and 4:00 pm for 60 days to triplicate groups. On the other hand, each group of fish was weighed in the beginning and after every 15 days and the amount of diet fed was adjusted accordingly. After 60 days of feeding, fish were taken out from each treatment; the dorsal muscle tissue of each was dissected and used for carcass composition analysis purposes.

Diet preparation

Five diets were formulated to contain approximately equal amount of digestible protein (40%) and digestible energy (14.86 cl/Kg). Main protein sources (fishmeal, soyabean and mustard oil cake) already grounded in mill was passed as particles through no. 40 (425 μm) mesh sieve. Mineral mix and vitamin mix were purchased from market After all, ingredients were thoroughly mixed, and appropriate quality of water provided (30% for 100 g of mixed ingredients). Diets were supplemented with 3% of the mixture of fish oil (FO) and vegetable oil (VO) at varying levels. Diet A1 (without supplemented oil) diet A2 (with 100% FO), diet A3 (with 75% FO+25% VO) diet A4 (with 50% FO+50% VO) and diet A5 (with 25% FO+75% VO) (Table 1). Dough was passed through an extruder to produce spaghetti and dried at 37oC for two days. So, the concerned dried diet was packaged into plastic bag and stored until its usage.

Ingredients A1 A2 A3 A4 A5
Fishmeal 39 39 39 39 39
Rice bran 04 04 04 04 04
Wheat bran 04 04 04 04 04
Mustard oil cake 21 21 21 21 21
Soyabean oil 24 24 24 24 24
Vegetable waste 04 04 04 04 04
Fish oil(FO) ----- 03 2.10 1.50 0.90
Vegetable oil (sunflower oil) ------ --- 0.90 1.50 2.10
Vitamin+minerals premix* 01 01 01 01 01

Table 1: Composition of experimental diets for Catla catla.

The proximate composition of the experimental diets and samples of the fish muscle were determined by standard methods using hot air oven for moisture, ash, lipid, and protein content respectively (Table 2 and Figure 1).

Composition A1 A2 A3 A4 A5
Dry matter* 91.62 91.54 91.19 91.25 91.20
Crude protein* 38.10 38.07 38.08 38.09 38.05
Crude lipid* 5.95 8.79 8.80 8.82 8.84
Ash* 17.26 17.89 17.60 17.65 17.69
Energy (cal/Kg) 14.87 14.95 14.89 14.97 14.93

Table 2: Proximate analysis of experimental diets fed Catla catla.


Figure 1: Proximate analysis of experimental diets fed Catla catla.

Sampling and growth measurement

The fishes from each tub were captured once in a fifteen days and were weighed individually and their growth was assessed by calculating following growth parameters.

Percentage weight (%WG): It was calculated by using the formula:

%WG=[(Wf-Wi)/ Wi] × 100

Where Wf is the final weight of the fish Wi is the initial weight of the fish.

Specific growth rate: The formula used for calculating SGR was:

SGR=(In final weight-In initial weight) × 100

No. of days of experiment

Feed conversion ratio (FCR): the FCR was calculated by using the formula

FCR=Feed fed/Gain in weight of fish

Feed conversion ratio FCE (%): It was calculated by using the formula:

FCE (%)=[(Gain in wet weight of fish/Feed Fed)] × 100

Statistical analysis

A one way analysis (ANOVA) was conducted in each and every experiment, using the computer software ‘Analyses it’.

Results and Discussion

In the present investigation the results related to growth performance of juvenile Catla catla fed on different types of dietary lipids (Table 3). The present results clearly reveal that there was insignificant difference (p>0.01) in growth parameters among various oil supplemented diets A2-A5. However, highest growth performance i.e. 48.48 ± 0.208 and specific growth rate (SGR) 0.271 ± 0.005 was observed in the group A4 ( 50% FO+50% VO sunflower oil) followed by 45.85 ± 1.204 and 0.250 ± 0.001 in diets A2 (100% FO), 42.988 ± 1.777 and 0.215 ± 0.003 in A3 (75% FO+ 25% VO), 43.88 ± 1.777 and 0.204 ± 0.004 in A5 (25% FO+75% VO). Further, there was a significant differences (p<0.01) between Diets A2-A5 with 3% additional dietary oil (9% lipid ) and Diet A1 i.e. Without oil supplementation (6% lipid), which registered a minimum growth increment i.e. 42.54 ± 0.982% and 0.193 ± 0.002 (SGR).

Parameters A1 A2 A3 A4 A5
Initial weight g/fish 0.2300.009 0.261 ± 0.004 0.239 ± 0.003 0.280 ± 0.007 0.233 ± 0.002
Final weight g/fish 0.329 ± 0.005 0.380 ± 0.007 0.341 ± 0.001 0.424 ± 0.003 0.336 ± 0.001
Weight gain g/fish 0.099 ± 0.003 0.119 ± 0.004 0.102 ± 0.003 0.144 ± 0.004 0.103 ± 0.005
SGR 0.193 ± 0.002 0.250 ± 0.001 0.215 ± 0.003 0.271 ± 0.005 0.204 ± 0.004
FCR 7.75 ± 0.070 6.74 ± 0.737 7.23 ± 0.292 5.81 ± 0.591 7.36 ± 0.292
PGR 42.54 ± 1.777 45.85 ± 1.204 43.88 ± 1.777 48.48 ± .0208 42.54 ± 1.777
FCE 12.88 ± 0.115 14.8 ± 1.352 13.81 ± 0.518 17.31 ± 1.325 13.54 ± 0.518
Survival (%) 93.56 ± 1.045 95.76 ± 0.532 95.47 ± 1.50 96.81 ± 0.50 95.26 ± 1.20

Table 3: Initial, final weight, weight gain, SGR, FCR, PGR and survival of Catla catla.

Similarly, best FCR and FCE were obtained in group fed on Diet A4. (6.73 ± 0.597 and 14.83 ± 1.325) followed by 6.74 ± 0.655 and 14.80 ± 1.33 in A2, 7.23 ± 0.737 and 13.81 ± 1.352 in A3, 7.36 ± 0.292 and 13.54 ± 0.518 in A5 and least in A1 i.e. 7.75 ± 0.70 and 12.88 ± 0.115.

The present findings are in accordance with Rosenlund [7] in Atlantic salmon, Caballero [8] in tilapia, Mourente [9] in Dicentranchus labrax and Kamaurudin [10] in Tor tambroides , who reported that partial replacement of fish oil up with vegetable oil in fish shows better growth performance without any adverse effect on growth and feed utilization (Table 3). They also attributed this to the sparing effect of dietary protein by increasing dietary lipid levels due to oil supplementation. Bahurmiz and Ng, Gao et al. and Yones et al. [11-13] while working on supplementation of various dietary oils in different fishes reported insignificant differences (p>0.01) in FCR, FCE and PER in groups fed on supplemented Fish oil (FO) and a mixed diet containing Fish oil ,soyabean oil and cottonseed oil. However, fishes fed on a mixed diet perform better in terms of feed utilization. They suggested that better growth performance may be due to presence of a balanced proportion of n-3/n-6 fatty acids in the mixed diet which are required for a better growth and feed utilization in fish.

Result of the present study thus suggested that potential exists for replacing costly FO with 50% of cheap and easily available sunflower oil in the feed of Catla catla juvenile, without compromising the growth performance and feed utilization (Figures 2-4).


Figure 2: Showing SGR of Catla catla.


Figure 3: Showing percentage growth rate (PGR).


Figure 4: Showing FCR and FCE Catla catla.


Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Article Usage

  • Total views: 18697
  • [From(publication date):
    October-2015 - Jul 06, 2022]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 14130
  • PDF downloads : 4567