Dersleri yüzünden oldukça stresli bir ruh haline sikiş hikayeleri bürünüp özel matematik dersinden önce rahatlayabilmek için amatör pornolar kendisini yatak odasına kapatan genç adam telefonundan porno resimleri açtığı porno filmini keyifle seyir ederek yatağını mobil porno okşar ruh dinlendirici olduğunu iddia ettikleri özel sex resim bir masaj salonunda çalışan genç masör hem sağlık hem de huzur sikiş için gelip masaj yaptıracak olan kadını gördüğünde porn nutku tutulur tüm gün boyu seksi lezbiyenleri sikiş dikizleyerek onları en savunmasız anlarında fotoğraflayan azılı erkek lavaboya geçerek fotoğraflara bakıp koca yarağını keyifle okşamaya başlar

GET THE APP

Perception, Cultural Norm, and Self-Efficacy: Edges of Smoking Habit Triangle among Chinese Adult Smokers | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2161-0711

Journal of Community Medicine & Health Education
Open Access

Like us on:

Our Group organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations
700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)

Research Article

Perception, Cultural Norm, and Self-Efficacy: Edges of Smoking Habit Triangle among Chinese Adult Smokers

Mark FitzGerald J*, Iraj Poureslami and Jessica Shum

UBC, Faculty of Medicine, Respiratory Medicine Division, Centre for Clinical Epidemiology and Evaluation (C2E2), Vancouver, Canada

*Corresponding Author:
Mark Fitz Gerald J
The Lung Centre, 7th Floor
Gordon and Leslie Diamond Health Care Centre
2775 Laurel Street Vancouver, BC, Canada
Tel: 604-875-4122
E-mail: mark.fitzgerald@vch.ca

Received date October 01, 2014; Accepted date December 26, 2014; Published date December 28, 2014

Citation: FitzGerald MJ, Poureslami I, Shum J (2014) Perception, Cultural Norm, and Self-Efficacy: Edges of Smoking Habit Triangle among Chinese Adult Smokers. J Community Med Health Educ 5:324. doi: 10.4172/2161-0711.1000324

Copyright: ©2014 FitzGerald JM, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

Objectives: We explored cultural and belief contexts for smoking habits within Mandarin and Cantonese speaking communities. The aim was to identify their perceived barriers and facilitators to successful cessation. We attempted to translate existing knowledge and our previous experience in designing a conceptual framework to conduct culturally-based participatory research.

Methods: A mixed qualitative and quantitative approach was applied, involving community members, keyinformants, and professionals in the design and implementation of the cross-sectional research. Three focus groups were conducted with 16 smokers from the target communities to assess their viewpoints on study framework and measurement tool.

Results: Participants were 167 current smokers, (137 males and 30 females) recruited with the help of community agencies and collaborating physicians. We assessed smoking patterns, beliefs, and perceptions and found a majority believed that smoking was harmful on their health. Younger smokers (<35 years of age) were more likely to not mind smoking in front of young children compared to older smokers (≥35 years of age) (p<0.001). People with high school or lower levels of education believed that they would benefit more from smoking than suffering from withdrawal symptoms compared to the higher educated smokers (p<0.05). Mandarin speaking smokers were significantly more likely to encourage others to quit than Cantonese speaking smokers (p<0.05). In addition, many indicated not receiving adequate support from their care providers and lack of access to culturally and linguistically appropriate cessation programs preventing their attempt to quit smoking.

Conclusion: Our study highlighted the importance of tobacco control regulations for Mandarin and Cantonese speaking immigrants with limited access to healthcare information and for younger smokers whose attention to health consequences of smoking may be limited as well. Participants of this study were generally aware of the health risks and were willing to quit. Access to appropriate cessation programs would fulfill their willingness.

Keywords

Top