Possible Risks and Protective Factors of Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Healthy Japanese Office WorkersIizuka R*, Sato T, Miyazaki K and Shida K
Basic Research Department, Yakult Central Institute, Tokyo, Japan
- *Corresponding Author:
- Ryoko Iizuka, Ph.D
Senior Researcher, Immune Regulation Research laboratory
Basic Research Department, Yakult Central Institute, 5-11
Izumi, Kunitachi, Tokyo, 186-8650, Japan
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: March 06, 2017; Accepted date: March 13, 2017; Published date: March 15, 2017
Citation: Iizuka R, Sato T, Miyazaki K, Shida K (2017) Possible Risks and Protective Factors of Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Healthy Japanese Office Workers. J Community Med Health Educ 7:509. doi:10.4172/2161-0711.1000509
Copyright: © 2017 Iizuka R, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Objective: In order to determine the risks and protective factors of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in healthy office workers, we conducted a preliminary epidemiological survey and analysis of saliva parameter levels.
Methods: One hundred and forty-six (98 men, 48 women; aged 20-59 years) healthy, full-time office workers in Tokyo and its suburbs participated in a questionnaire survey on lifestyle habits and daily physical condition, including symptoms of URTIs, from October 2012 to March 2013. Salivary parameters (secretory IgA, beta-defensin 2, LL-37, granulysin, lysozyme, cortisol) levels were also measured to analyze the correlation to URTI incidence and lifestyle habits.
Results: Both the incidence rate and frequency of URTIs per person during the investigation period were highest among participants in their 50s and lowest among participants in their 30s. Participants who lived with their family showed higher URTI incidence than those who lived alone, while those with exercise habits showed lower URTI incidence. Higher saliva cortisol levels significantly correlated with high URTI incidence, while higher salivary granulysin levels significantly correlated with low URTI incidence.
Conclusions: The risk factors of URTI incidence among healthy, full-time office workers include not only aging, but also living with family and higher salivary cortisol levels, and the protective factors are exercise habits and higher salivary granulysin levels.