To Determine the Risk Factors and Prevalence of Osteoporosis among Adult Pakistani Population Residing in Karachi Using Quantitative Ultrasound TechniqueShazia Haris1*, Firdous Jahan2, Asma Afreen3, Hajra Ahmed4 and Zaheer Ahmed4
- *Corresponding Author:
- Shazia Haris
Specialist Family Physician
Ministry of Health Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Saudi Arabia
Tel: 00966 502438694
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: May 26, 2014; Accepted date: July 16, 2014; Published date: July 22, 2014
Citation: Haris S, Jahan F, Afreen A, Ahmed H, Ahmed Z (2014) To Determine the Risk Factors and Prevalence of Osteoporosis among Adult Pakistani Population Residing in Karachi Using Quantitative Ultrasound Technique. J Community Med Health Educ 4:299. doi: 10.4172/2161-0711.1000299
Copyright: © 2014 Haris S, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
our country too. The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis, and also to establish the risk factors associated with it in Pakistan. Method: It was a cross sectional study that was conducted in the primary care setting in different areas of Karachi. Bone mineral density assessment was done by the speed of sound using the quantitative ultrasound technique at the right Calcaneus. A structured questionnaire was prepared, to evaluate the risk factors associated with osteoporosis Results: Out of 500 participants 21.6% were male and 78.4% were female. The overall prevalence of osteoporosis was 30.7% (24% male and 32.6% females). The prevalence of osteopenia was 44.5% (51% being male and 42.6% being female). Factors that were statistically (p value <0.05) associated with low bone mineral density were increasing age, female gender for osteoporosis, normal to heavy weight, office work in both male and female, inadequate physical activity, inadequate sun exposure, inadequate intake of calcium, smoking in males and smokeless tobacco in both male and female, intake of steroids. Past history of fracture among the participants and the history of fracture in the parents, diabetes and depression also showed positive association, balanced diet and educational status and hypertension could not provide any significant statistical association with low bone mineral density. Conclusion: The prevalence of osteoporosis is high among the adult population of Karachi and it is associated with modifiable risk factors. Non-communicable diseases like, diabetes and depression, also gave a positive association, which needs further prospective studies to confirm this association.