Received Date: September 22, 2012; Accepted Date: October 18, 2012; Published October 22, 2012
Citation: Bocoum Z, Diarra M, Maiga HM, Sanogo Y, Sylla MSM, et al. (2012) Prevalence in the Bovine Trypanosomiasis Kadiolo Circle. J Community Med Health Educ 2:183. doi: 10.4172/2161-0711.1000183
Copyright: © 2012 Bocoum Z, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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The prevalence of trypanosomiasis in cattle was estimated on farms circle Kadiolo between July and August 2009. This study was consecutive to complaints agro-pastoralists in the area due to heavy mortalities recorded in cattle in general and in particular oxen. Blood samples from 473 cattle of all ages, sexes were collected in 15 villages identified by the local technical support (state and private) and by associations of agro pastoralists in the area; examined for trypanosomes using Buffy Coat technique. A total of 146 cattle (30.86 to 100) were found infected with trypanosomes: 14 (9.58 to 100) with Trypanosoma vivax, 131 (89.72 to 100) with T. congolense and 1 (0.68 to 100) with T. brucei. This study showed that trypanosomiasis was the leading cause of death oxen in the circle Kadiolo.
Prevalence; Trypanosome; Oxen; Kadiolo
African Animal Trypanosomiasis is a serious obstacle to livestock development in sub-humid areas of West Africa where the basins are cotton from Mali whose Kadiolo circle. The severity of this disease has increased dramatically with the introduction of zebu to meet demand tensile strength expressed by cotton producers before and soon after independence. The gradual replacement of indigenous cattle, Mere and N’Dama, Zebu by, has greatly increased dependence on livestock and oxen vis-à-vis the trypanocidal treatments and practice encouraged by the farmers themselves.
Indeed, there trypanocidal treatments are the main and often the only means used in the fight against bovine trypanosomiasis. In recent years, significant mortality is reported in the Kadiolo circle. Disease and mortalities recorded concern, as well, the villagers’ farms (agro savings) than oxen (their tractors) which directly affects agricultural production and threatening the livelihoods of populations.
This study was conducted in a population of cattle of all genders, ages and breeds (Zebu, N’Dama and Zebu cross Métis from the N’Dama x), of which 473 blood samples were taken and analyzed for research parasites (Trypanosoma spp.).
Kadiolo circle covers an area of 640 km2. Agriculture is the main economic activity. Cotton is the first cash crop monitoring vegetable crops such as potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava and okra. Food crops are maize, millet, sorghum and rice etc (Figure 1).
The herd is composed of: 1,03,550 cattle, 25,000 sheep, 90,000 goats, 3,976 pigs and 2,00,000 poultry (Estimated veterinary Kadiolo, 2005). Draft animals (oxen plowing are estimated at 6,000 bovines).
Type and study period
To determine the parasitological prevalence in the area, a crosssectional study was conducted in July 2009 in 15 villages in 5 communes circle Kadiolo. The villages were selected because of the high morbidity and mortality reported by agro pastoralists in livestock in general and in particular oxen.
The animals were bled from the jugular vein and blood collected in tubes (type vacutainer) with anticoagulant for trypanosomes. The technique used was the “Buffy Coat” (BCT). Blood tests were conducted on site in appropriate locations, using a generator as a power source.
Survey of farmers
Questionnaires were submitted to the farmers in the study area to obtain information about the practical use of trypanocidal drugs and acaricides and assess their knowledge of trypanosomiasis and its vectors.
Prevalence of bovine trypanosomiasis in villages: As given in table 1, the average prevalence of trypanosomiasis in cattle in fifteen villages varied between 3.33 and 76.19 for 100 with an overall average of 30.86 for 100. The proportion of infection by T. congolense amounted to 89.72 for 100 and 9.58 for 100 and 0.68 for 100 for T. vivax and T. brucei respectively. The highest prevalence was found in the village of Kambérégué (76.19 to 100). Significant prevalence’s were also observed Misséni (64.70 to 100), Zégoua (50 to 100), Kafono (43.33 to 100), Lofiné (31.81 to 100), Fanidiama (30 to 100), Dioumatenè (26.66 to 100), Kadiolo (25 to 100), and Lofigué Borogoba (20 to 100).
|No of Animals Taken||total Positive||Tb (%)||Tc (%)||Tv (%)||Overall prevalence (%)|
|Kambo||30||1||0 (0.00)||1 (100.00)||0 (0.00)||3.33|
|Kadiolo (marché à bétail)||32||8||0 (0.00)||8 (100.00)||0 (0.00)||25.00|
|Borogoba||30||6||0 (0.00)||5 (83.33)||1 (16.66)||20.00|
|Kafono||30||13||0 (0.00)||11 (84.61)||2 (15.38)||43.33|
|Lofiné||44||14||0 (0.00)||10 (71.42)||4 (28.57)||31.81|
|Lofigué||30||6||0 (0.00)||6 (100.00)||0 (0.00)||20.00|
|Nafegué||25||3||0 (0.00)||2 (66.66)||1 (33.33)||16.00|
|Vata||20||3||0 (0.00)||3 (100.00)||0 (0.00)||15.00|
|Dioumatènè||30||8||0 (0.00)||7 (87.50)||1 (12.50)||26.66|
|Misséni||34||22||1 (4.54)||21 (95.45)||0 (0.00)||64.70|
|Katiélé||30||4||0 (0.00)||2 (50.00)||2 (50)||13.33|
|Kambereké||42||32||0 (0.00)||32 (100)||0 (0.00)||76.19|
|Zégoua||16||8||0 (0.00)||6 (75.00)||2 (25.00)||50.00|
|Fanidiama||50||15||0 (0.00)||15 (100.00)||0 (0.00)||30.00|
|Zampédougou||30||3||0 (0.00)||2 (66.66)||1(33.33)||10.00|
|Total||473||146||1 (0.68)||131 (89.72)||14 (9.58)||30.86|
Table 1: Prevalence of trypanosomosis/villages.
The average prevalence of trypanosomiasis in cattle in five municipalities (Table 2) varied between 18.66 and 76.19 for 100. The proportion of infection is high for T. congolense in Fourou (100 to 100), Misséni Zégoua (88.46 to 100), Dioumatenè (85.71 to 100 and Kadiolo (85.41 to 100). The average proportion of infection with T. congolense stood at 89.72 per 100.
|No of Animals Taken||Total Positive||Tb (%)||Tc (%)||Tv (%)||Average Overall prevalence (%)|
|Kadiolo||196||48||0 (0.00)||41 (85.41)||7 (14.58)||24.48|
|Dioumatènè||75||14||0 (0.00)||12 (85.71)||2 (14.28)||18.66|
|Misséni||64||26||1 (3.84)||23 (88.46)||2 (7.69)||40.62|
|Fourou||42||32||0 (0.00)||32 (100.00)||0 (0.00)||76.19|
|Zégoua||96||26||0 (0.00)||23 (88.46)||3 (11.53)||27.08|
|Total||473||146||1 (0.68)||131 (89.72)||14 (9.58)||30.86|
Table 2: Prevalence of trypanosomiasis/municipalities.
The infection rate in the largest T. vivax was observed Kadiolo (14.58 to 100). Rates were observed in Dioumatenè, Zégou and Misséni and the average proportion of T. vivax infection rises to 9.58 for 100.
T. brucei was observed only for Misséni infection rate at 3.84 per 100. The highest prevalence was found in the town of Fourou (76.19 to 100), followed by Misséni (40.62 to 100), Zégoua (27.8 to 100) and Kadiolo (24.48 to 100).
The investigation into the use of trypanocidal drugs and other acaricides showed that most farmers know the clinical signs of trypanosomiasis and associate the presence of tsetse flies as vectors. Trypanocidal drugs are the most widely used generic Isometamidium chloride and diminazene.
A high incidence of trypanosomiasis may increase morbidity and result in high mortality may be thinking about the arrival of a disease previously unknown. This was the case in the early 1980s in the Sikasso circle, when the cause of observed mortality was attributed to a mysterious disease called “disease Denderesso,” the name of a village whose cattle had paid a heavy tribute. The intervention of a multidisciplinary team CTA had identified trypanosomiasis, as the cause of the disaster; diagnosis was confirmed by the effects of measures taken at the time to control the disease and mortality . More later, in 2002-2003, the presence of drug resistance has been demonstrated in several villages of Sikasso circle and vector control is going to contain the spread of resistant trypanosomes in the project ILRI/BMZ . The situation described currently Kadiolo looks good to that already lived in the circle of Sikasso . The studies most relevant to this topic are those made in cotton growing areas of Côte d’Ivoire, Burkina Faso and Mali. Studies in northern Côte d’Ivoire during the 1980s and analyzing the degree of infection in different genotypes showed that cattle zebu showed infection levels much higher than those of all other genetic, Baoulé, N’Dama and zebu crossbred with . These studies have provided an exacerbation in the future, the situation of trypanosomiasis with increased blood circulation. Zebu in farms villagers consist of bullfighting in N’Dama Baoulé [5-7]. Two episodes of morbidity and mortality in cattle, unprecedented, were observed in the province of Kénédougou in Burkina Faso and in the circle of Sikasso in the early 1980s, both formally attributed to trypanosomiasis [5,7]. In the circle of Sikasso, the disease is illustrated by high mortality (40 juqu’à per 100) in oxen, all of zebu breed, causing a fall of 57 per 100 of the village farms with Djinigorola . The prevalence observed in the villages and Djinigorala Yaban (Sikasso circle) by a team of CTA was 66 per 100 and 33 per 100 respectively .
The implementation of the protocol resulted in a significant reduction in mortality, and oxen N’Dama introduced in traction were well appreciated by the peasants. By cons bulls were unable to long career, due to temperament deemed too high . These rates are consistent with the results obtained by Bocoum et al.  and in 2008 in the same area.
This study showed that bovine animal trypanosomiasis is endemic in Kadiolo circle and was the leading cause of morbidity and mortality of livestock in general and cattle in particular.