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Cardiovascular Physiology is a branch of physiology concerned with the study of the circulatory system, involving blood flow, the cardiac cycle and cardiac output and how these depend on one another. The heart is a muscular organ which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system provides the body with oxygen and nutrients and helps in the removal of metabolic wastes. The heart is divided into four chambers and pumps blood through the body. Blood low in oxygen from the systemic circulation enters the right atrium from the superior and inferior venae cavae and passes to the right ventricle. From here it is pumped into the pulmonary circulation, through the lungs where it receives oxygen and gives off carbon dioxide. Oxygenated blood then returns to the left atrium, passes through the left ventricle and is pumped out through the aorta to the systemic circulation−where the oxygen is used and metabolized to carbon dioxide. The cardiac cycle refers to a complete heartbeat which includes systole and diastole and the intervening pause. Cardiac output (CO) is a measurement of the amount of blood pumped by each ventricle (stroke volume) in one minute.
Related Journals of Cardiovascular System