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Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long term. Dementia is not a single disease in itself, but a general term to describe symptoms of impairment in memory, communication, and thinking. Dementia increases with age; it is not a normal part of aging.
Dementias can be caused by brain cell death, and neurodegenerative disease - progressive brain cell death that happens over time - is associated with most dementias. Dementia can be caused by a head injury, a stroke, or a brain tumour, among other causes. The most common type of dementia is Alzheimer's disease, which makes up 50% to 70% of cases. Other common types include vascular dementia (25%), Lewy body dementia (15%), and frontotemporal dementia, Post-traumatic dementia, Parkinson's disease, alpha-synucleinm, Huntington's disease, normal pressure hydrocephalus, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, Down syndrome.
Huntington's is associate degree disease that causes the progressive breakdown (degeneration) of nerve cells within the brain. Chorea features a broad impact on a personality's useful talents and typically leads to movement, thinking (cognitive) and medical specialty disorders.
A slowly progressive neurological illness that's characterised by a set uncommunicative face, tremor at rest, swiftness of voluntary movements, gait with short fast steps, peculiar posture and muscle weakness (caused by degeneration of a section of the brain referred to as the basal ganglia), and low production of the neurochemical Intropin.
Mental disorder is also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time. It is the cause of 60% to 70% of cases of dementia. The most common early symptom is difficulty in remembering recent events (short-term memory loss). As the disease advances, symptoms can include problems with language, disorientation (including easily getting lost), mood swings, and loss of motivation, not managing self-care, and behavioural issues.
Traumatic brain injury results from an impact to the head that disrupts normal brain function. Traumatic brain injury may affect a person’s cognitive abilities, including learning and thinking skills.
It is a clinical symptom complicated caused by the build-up of humour. This condition is characterised by abnormal gait, enuresis, and (potentially reversible) dementedness.
It is a pathological process that occurs in frontotemporal dementia. It is characterized by atrophy in the frontal lobe and temporal lobe of the brain, with sparing of the parietal and occipital lobes.
CJD could be a transmissible, chop-chop profressive, inviariably fatal neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by the build up of abnormal particle macromolecule within the neurons leading to their spongiform degeneration.
Lewy body dementedness (LBD) could be a common neurological disorder that impairs a personality's ability to try to to everyday activities. though the disorder often runs in families, most cases occur ad lib. supermolecule deposits made from alpha-synuclein type "Lewy bodies" in brain tissue that square measure known microscopically and square measure square measure characteristic of the sickness. The Lewy bodies accumulate in numerous areas of the brain, together with the pallium, and have an effect on the brain's ability to operate properly. LBD affects knowledge, sleep, mood, behavior, and movement.
Stroke (“brain attack”) is a disease of the blood vessels in and around the brain. It occurs when part of the brain does not receive enough blood to function normally and the cells die (infarction), or when a blood vessel ruptures (hemorrhagic stroke). Infarction is more common than hemorrhage and has a number of causes; for example, a vessel (artery) supplying blood to the brain can become blocked by a fatty deposit (plaque), which can form clots and send pieces into vessels further in the brain, or these arteries become thickened or hardened, narrowing the space where the blood flows (atherosclerosis). In addition, clots can arise in the heart and travel to the brain
A neurological examination is the assessment of sensory neuron and motor responses, especially reflexes, to determine whether the nervous system is impaired. This typically includes a physical examination and a review of the patient's medical history but not deeper investigation such as neuroimaging.
Alpha-synuclein (also α-synuclein) is a protein whose function in the healthy brain is currently unknown. It is of great interest to Parkinson's researchers because it is a major constituent of Lewy bodies, protein clumps that are the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease.
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) is a degenerative brain disease found in athletes, military veterans, and others with a history of repetitive brain trauma. In CTE, a protein called Tau forms clumps that slowly spread throughout the brain, killing brain cells. CTE has been seen in people as young as 17, but symptoms do not generally begin appearing until years after the onset of head impacts. It is also called as Dementia Pugilistica.
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more-serious decline of dementia. It can involve problems with memory, language, thinking and judgment that are greater than normal age-related changes.
Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), also called Benson's syndrome, is a form of dementia which is usually considered an atypical variant of Alzheimer's disease.The disease causes atrophy of the posterior part of the cerebral cortex, resulting in the progressive disruption of complex visual processing. PCA was first described by D. Frank Benson in 1988.In rare cases, PCA can be caused by dementia with Lewy bodies and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease.
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) is a type of brain disorder caused by a lack of vitamin B-1. The syndrome is actually two separate conditions that can occur at the same time. Usually, people get the symptoms of Wernicke’s encephalopathy first.
Ischemic (“is-skeem-ic”) stroke occurs when an artery to the brain is blocked. The brain depends on its arteries to bring fresh blood from the heart and lungs. The blood carries oxygen and nutrients to the brain, and takes away carbon dioxide and cellular waste. If an artery is blocked, the brain cells (neurons) cannot make enough energy and will eventually stop working. If the artery remains blocked for more than a few minutes, the brain cells may die. This is why immediate medical treatment is critical.
Mixed dementia is a condition where changes representing more than one type of dementia occur simultaneously in the brain. In the most common form, the plaques and tangles associated with nerve cells in Alzheimer's disease are present along with blood vessel changes associated with vascular dementia.
CST or 'Cognitive Stimulation Therapy', is a brief treatment for people with mild to moderate dementia.'Dementia' is an umbrella term, the two main types being Alzheimer's and Vascular dementia. CST was designed following extensive evaluation of research evidence, hence is an evidence-based treatment.UK Government NICE guidance on the management of dementia recommend the use of group Cognitive Stimulation for people with mild to moderate dementia, irrespective of drug treatments received.
Asperger syndrome (AS), also known as Asperger's, is a developmental disorder characterized by significant difficulties in social interaction and nonverbal communication, along with restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and interests.