Italy is the country of south-central Europe, occupying a peninsula that juts deep into the Mediterranean Sea. It is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. It is shaped like a boot. Italy shares land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, San Marino and Vatican City. Italy is a leading member of the European Union and the member of numerous institutions like the United Nations, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the OECD, the OSCE, the World Trade Organization, the G7/G8, G20, and the Council of Europe. Rome, Milan and Naples are the largest cities in the country.
Italy’s geography has been conditioned by this rugged landscape. Italy has the eighth largest economy in the world and enjoys the highest life expectancy in the European Union. Geographically, Italy is a boot shaped peninsula with 1,130 km long comprising a total area of 301,238 Km2. It is having two largest Mediterranean islands of Sardania and Sicily along with 68 smaller islands. There are two independent states within Italy’s border – Vatican City and San Marino. Most of the Italy experience moderate climate with some extreme cold in the north.
Its strengths are its metallurgical and engineering industries, and its weaknesses are a lack of raw materials and energy sources. More than four-fifths of Italy’s energy requirements are imported. At the end of the 20th century, Italy, seeking balance with other EU nations, brought its high inflation under control and adopted more conservative fiscal policies, including sweeping privatization. Italy's gross domestic expenditure on Research and Development (GERD) was more than 20 billion euro.
Camillo Golgi, Daniel Bovet, Renato Dulbecco, Salvador Luria, Rita Levi-Montalcini, Mario Capecchi are the Nobel laureates from Italy in Physiology or Medicine. There are totally 20 Noble Laureates in Italy, Mario Capecchi got Noble prize in 2007 in the field of Medicine. Oncology Journals in Italy are encompassing Researches by various scholars. In Italy Oncology should be focused.