Received date April 04, 2016; Accepted date April 13, 2016; Published date April 19, 2016
Citation: Madu HK, Omar NA, Zailani SA (2016) Feasibility for a Sustainable and Profitable Local Goats Production. J Fisheries Livest Prod 4:181. doi:10.4172/2332-2608.1000181
Copyright: © 2016 Madu HK, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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This publication provides some of the important and basic information frequently requested by farmers considering commercial goat production as a profit making venture or a business enterprise. In order to meet up the Agricultural transformation agenda of the federal republic of Nigeria as well as the effort to diversify the economy of the country, Agriculture (animal husbandry) must be brought to focus and must be given due priority. This feasibilty is design to encouage and to enlighten prospective farmers on the basic requirements of setting up the goat production as an industry and a means of livelihood. We have dwelled on issues partaining to land selection/acquisition, design of the house, facilities required (including personnel), selecting of the animals and breeding/health program. Moreover, the general production and productivity of goats were expantiated and the aspect of marketing the products such as meat, milk and to lesser extent the manure. Lastly the issue of business sustainability was mentioned through the incorporating the farm workers as shareholders of the business, so as to encourage them put in their best and to help in maximizing profit of the business.
Goat production; Feasibilty; Sedentary; Drafting; Grazing paddocks; Pastoral
Goats are reared under extensive farming conditions, mainly for meat (chevon) and to a lesser extent for milk. To some extent productivity of these goats is low due various factors such as high kid mortality and lack of good animal husbandry practices. Goats also provide skins of commercial importance and manure for gardens and crop fields .
Facilities for goats and sheep are an important aspect of small ruminant production. While shelters and fences are primary components of facilities, there are some apparatus to consider such as feeders, water vessels, working stations, and other equipment .
Goats are raised mostly to safeguard against crop failure and unfavourable crop price in intensive cropping areas . The FAO  stated that 95% of the world goat population is found in developing countries of the tropics and that there are approximately 26.2% are found in Africa.
Beside their contributions to the economy and food supply of resources to the poor farmers, their specific biological features such as feeding behavior, reproduction efficiency and small body size are important characteristics for integrating goats into pastoral and sedentary small holder production systems .
Best management practices are easier accomplished by drafting a comprehensive management plan on paper or computer that includes diagrams of housing, grazing paddocks, gates, etc. . Goats are deeply embedded in almost every African culture and are true friends to the rural poor and yet have received very little attention by African governments and investment in their development .
Rotational grazing systems control grazing activity by dividing large pastures into smaller paddocks. Rotational grazing systems require more management as goats must be moved more frequently between paddocks . Goats eat the forages, the goats’ manure replaces some purchased fertilizers, and the life cycles of various crop and animal pests are interrupted. Like other ruminant animals, goats convert plant material that is unsuitable for human consumption into high-quality animal products .
The goal of most goat production program is to improve the goat herd's productivity through general husbandry, nutritional management, parasite control, vaccination, and environmental management .
Land size, depends on number of animals considering that there is space requirement per animal such as 0.50 m2 (minimum) for an adult goat in stall housing, 1.50 m2 for an adult goat in open housing with and outside yard, 0.30 m2 for kid before weaning.
Land for this proposed Goat enterprise can be purchased and the size will depend on the stocking density and the anticipated increase in number of the animals over time. The location of the land for the farm will be such that is far away from predators, despite the fact that adequate security measures will be put in place for protection of the animals. The land should also be provided with adequate water source (such as borehole). The location of the land should also be at the outskirt of the town in order to provide for possible expansion whenever the need arise. Issues of land documents such as certificate of occupancy must be addressed.
Design of the Housing
Goats should be housed to protect them from bad weather for example rain, sun and wind. Each adult goat should be allowed a floor space of 1.5 m2. For example if one has 10 goats then the house/pen should be 1.5*10 which 15 m2 is. .
Structure materials will vary depending on the designer, facility needs, and your budget. Designs often utilize a combination of wood, metal, and plastic, which are readily accessible, affordable, practical, and easy to maintain. For safety purposes, protruding glass and metal should be avoided and acted upon accordingly .
Goats seem to enjoy water for drinking but they don't use it much for bathing. In fact, when the water comes from above, they seek shelter. During warmer weather, this may only cause discomfort. But, in colder temperatures, goats should not remain cold and wet for long periods. Young goats are particularly vulnerable to respiratory infection and to hypothermia .
The primary need for housing is during kidding, especially if kidding occurs during cold weather. A dry, draft free area is needed. Does can kid in large community pens. Some producers use kidding (mothering) pens or jugs to separate does and their litters. Building plans for livestock housing are available at most county extension offices or can be adapted locally to suit the need of the production.
The wall of the housing should be 1.5 m long, and the roofing’s made up of thatch and the walls at one part made up of mud blocks or “bani-bani” and at other parts made of tree branches or “Gora” closely tied together with local ropes (‘Kargo’) (Figure 1).
While the floor will be locally made of properly rammed clay soil mixed with coal tar to make it stronger, impermeable and for easy collection of manure when accumulated.
Also there will be construction of watering and feeding troughs within the farm as well as the spray race and or dips around the farm surrounding.
Size of land depends on the type of management intended, Semiintensive management will be employed, and the farm will be meant for breeding and fattening animals.
The construction of the house will depend on the size of the land and the number of animals intended to start with or expected and the expected increase as time goes on. However, the house will be partitioned to consist of the general pen also referred as dry pen that will contain dry animals known as growers or weaners. Pen for pregnant animals, Pen for kidding, Pen for suckling animals. Quarantine and Isolation pen, Animals should be kept in pens based on sex and age.
The plan for the construction of the farm is available in most extension service offices of the state or federal ministry of agricultures or in the agricultural research offices or centers. However, a template has been sketched for construction under the supervision of a veterinarian or veterinary superintendent for proper implementation of the exact plan. (As in appendix I attached).
Goat housing should be designed with manure handling in mind. Ventilation is an important aspect of animal housing, particularly closed housing. Poor ventilation can be detrimental to animal health and performance. Harmful gases and dust can cause respiratory problems, while temperature extremes can reduce animal and human productivity .
Feeding and watering trough (concrete, metal or plastic), Weighing scale and or weighing tape ‘heart-girt’ tape, Wheel barrow, Shovel, Buckets, Rain boots, Lab. Coat, Hand gloves, Head pan (Bowl), Ear tags, Log book, Hooves trimmer and Burdizzo.
A veterinarian that oversees the entire affairs of the farm. A livestock superintendents/assistant that supervise the feeding and feeding formulation as well as management of some minor problems in the absence of the vets. The farm manager does the administrative and financial operations of the farm. Laborers will be responsible for feeding and watering the animals and cleaning of the entire farm, collection and disposal of manure etc.
Selection of animals (breeding, health programme)
a) Breeding programme: Selection of breeding animal, only those with history of previous parturition will be purchased (at least of proven fertility)
Two intact teat properly formed and placed in female
a) Strong legs for male.
b) Does reach maturity at 8-9 month or up to 1 yr depending on nutritional status of the animal.
c) Animals should be grouped according to age and sex.
d) Sex ratio is 1:10 for effectiveness.
e) Pregnant will be housed separately for effective care and high plain nutrition.
f) Animals will be Flushed (feed adequate balance diet) before breeding.
g) Take females to the male for breeding not the other way round.
h) Twice kidding in a year with quality management and good breeds also with creep feeding of young animals.
i) Observations become very important i.e. that the animal is served in anticipation of new kids. Observations will enable farmer select animals as replacement stock; some of the traits to look at are;
➢ Twining ability.
➢ Mothering ability.
➢ Growth rate.
➢ Milk production and kidding intervals.
b) Health programme
a) Foot bath will be placed at the main entrance of the farm as a biosecurity measure.
b) There will be litter materials on the floor such as saw dust.
c) Manure will be regularly collected and disposed off.
d) Isolation of sick animals and Quarantine of newly introduced animals in their individual pens.
e) Regular deworming exercise at least three times every year.
f) Dipping/Spraying against external parasites (ticks particularly).
g) Vaccination programme against preventable diseases such as PPR and CCPP.
h) Screening of pens against insects and pests as the case may be and whenever necessary.
i) Provision of quality Housing to prevent undue stress on the animals.
j) Provision of quality water also to prevent ingestion water borne infections like salmonella.
k) Provision of feed supplements such as concentrates for quality growth and vigor.
c) Reproduction programme
a. Animals will be synchronized to enable kidding at the same time (a particular season) of the year when the condition is favourable for growth of the kids.
b. Animals will be mated within a very good age (8-9 month or up to 1 yr) depending on the physical appearance and the development of sex organs on the animals.
c. Excess male animals in the flock would be castrated and isolated in one pen for fattening and subsequently disposed (Figure 2).
Perennial source of water from bore holes, wells, stream, and river or earth dam is necessary because in animals a 10% loss of water is fatal.
Nutrition is fundamental to any production program and feed nutrients such as protein, energy, and minerals should be considered. Feed are given to animals for maintenance, growth, pregnancy and production .
Factors affecting nutrient requirement of goats such maintenance and activity level, stage of pegnancy, kidding rate, stage of lactation/ milk production and growth or weight gain should alos be considered. Other important points such highest nutrient requirement time for the doe is late pregnancy which is different with that of the cow are also of paramount importance .
Feed stuffs such as hay, silage, and concentrates as supplements must be fed to the animals ad libitum.
Milk production as it has been observed that good milk produces 1-1.5 L of milk per day and a liter is sold at about N60. Sales of animals to the butchers for slaughter in the abattoir or sales of meat in the farm i.e. in situation where the need may arise to slaughter the animals around the farm. Sales of live animals as replacement stock to prospectus buyers. Sales of organic fertilizer (manure) to farmers. 100 kg of the manure is sold at about N700-N900. Manure market has also been extended to poultry farmers as it is now incorporated in poultry feeds formulation for it increases the yolk pigmentation, it was observed to increase pigmentation to up to 85%.
Monthly incentives for the personnel
The veterinarian will be paid the sum of N20, 000/month (parttime) or consultancy services. The livestock assistant will be paid sum of 16,000/month (part-time) or consultancy services. The administrative officer will be paid N15,000/month, While the three laborers will be paid the sum of N10, 500 each (X3)=N31, 500. In addition to that 5% of the total initial amount invested in the farm will be paid to the person that designs the herd health program. Watchman that guard the farm overnight will be paid N10, 000.
Product/Expected output after 12-15 months
At the end of about 7-8 months all the female animals are expected to get pregnant, after kidding assuming that all the 11 animals kidded twins and at almost the same time because they are expected to be bred at the same time, even though there is a possibility that few of them may deliver triplets. Assuming the extra number of kids take care of any kid mortality that may likely occur. Therefore we will have 11 x 2 kids’ i.e. 22 kids. Let’s also assume that of the 22 kids obtained, 66% (15 kids) are female and the remaining are males i.e. 34% (7 kids). Even though the does will come to heat after they kid, one should really wait to breed the doe. Because kidding and lactating take a lot of energy out of the doe and therefore she need to adequately rest between kidding.
Because a goat kids of either sex can be fertile at 7 weeks of age, that is not enough a reason why they should be bred at that time and Intact bucks and does over 7 weeks of age will not be kept together because a young buck can, and will, breed a female at 2 months of age, this includes his mother and 2 month old sister! (Breeding does). For the purpose of this farm therefore kids are allowed to reach 7-8 months before they will be bred, which implies that there will be 15+11 (26 does) ready for breeding at that time, and of the first F1 generation only 1 buck will be selected for breeding the 15 does of his set, therefore we will be left with 6 bucks and they will kept for fattening.
Also the 26 does will be bred again at the same time, and assuming that all become pregnant and after a gestation period of about 6 months all the does are kidded a minimum of 2 kids each. It is then expect to have 2 × 26 (=52 kids). And let also assume the same as in above that 66% of 52 kids are (females i.e. 34) and 34% are (males i.e. 18). Therefore, as regard number of animals just 15 months after setting up the farm there will be a total of 11+3+22+52=88 out of which 60 are females and 18 are males. Based on male to female ratio of 1:10 therefore only 4 of the male (bucks) animals will be selected on merit for breeding the remaining 14 will be castrated and kept for fattening.
Milk produced by the lactating does will be collected for sale and based on experience the does produced excess milk that can be collected comfortably for sale in addition to the quantity used for feeding their kids. It was also observed and stated that one of the reasons why small ruminants (particularly does) kept by the Fulani nomads do not usually suffer from mastitis and is because of the fact that they do milk them alongside with the cows, and therefore no excess milk is incidentally found in the udder of the animals and so a significant reduction in cases of mastitis compared to the does kept in household that are not milked (Table 1).
Sales of milk
Therefore, by estimation during the 15 months of the establishment of the farm the 26 does would have produced about liters of milk (assuming 1-1.5 liters of milk can be produced daily by each for 5-6 months under good nutrition). And for the period of initial 15 months we have 33 does that have become pregnant and kidded, it is therefore assumed that if each of these 33 animals will produce at least 1.25 liter of milk the following will be obtained;33 animals; 33 × 1.5=49.5 liters of milk/day. 49.5 liters x 30 days=1485 liters of milk/month. 1485 liters × 5 months=7,425 liters of milk/5 months and if a liter of milk is sold at N60. Then the animals will generate the sum of N 447,120 to the farm on milk alone.
|S/No.||Item (Description)||Quantity||Rate||Amount (Price in Naira)|
|2||Does (of proven fertility)||11||4,000||44,000|
|11||Burdizzo Castrator (Small)||1||3,500||3,500|
|13||Feeding trough (plastic bowl)||5||300||1,500|
|14||Drinking trough (plastic bowl)||5||300||1,500|
|17||Bag of maize bran||5||1,800||9,000|
|18||Bag of Wheat bran||5||2,000||10,000|
|19||Cost of purchasing the land||100/200sq M||300,000||300,000|
|20||Cost of fencing, construction of pens and other settings in the farm.||20,000||20,000|
|21||Salaries for all the workers||12 months||55,500||666,000|
|22||Cost of Construction of bore hole||1||45,000||45,000|
|23||Cost planting pasture on the land||10,000||10,000|
|26||Antibiotics (Inj.Terramycin LA)||5 (100mls)||400||2,000|
|27||Multivitamins (injection)||5 (100mls)||250||1,250|
|28||Dewormers(liquid albendazole)||6 (1 liter)||250||1,500|
|29||Hypodermic syringe and needles (5mls)||3 packets||600||1,800|
Table 1: General productivity.
Sales of castrated bucks and does
The 14 bucks after castration and proper fattening until they reach a live weight of 50-60 kg before they will be sold, and it will be made in such a way that the time for disposing them coincides with any of the festivities i.e. either Christmas, Easter, or Sallah festivities so that it will be valuable. If a buck is sold for N5, 500. Then the 14 bucks would generate N77, 000 for the farm.
Also because there is going to be a particular number of animals to be maintained in the farm, even the does will from time to time be culled out of the farm for sale to prospectus buyer in order to maintain that number. At this point therefore there will be about 20 does for sale to the public, and assuming a sexually matured doe cost about N5, 000 and that 20 does would generate N 100, 000.
Sales of manure
If a 100 kg of manure will cost N700-900 and it is expected to collect at least 100 kg every five days for the first 6 months when the number of animals is 14. And because as the number of animals’ increases the quantity of manure will also increases proportionately therefore let’s assume that as from the 7th month 150 kg of the manure will be collected every day up to the 15th month. Therefore amount of money that will be generated is calculated as follows;100 kg every 5 days, and therefore 600 kg will be generated for 1 month. As such 3,600 kg of manure will be generated over the period of 6 months. Therefore generating the sum of N28, 800 if sold at N8/Kg.
And 150 kg of manure is collected daily for the remaining 9 months this will be translated as 4,500 kg of manure/month, and it means 40, 500 kg of manure in the period of 9 months, And this means a sum of N324, 000 also when sold at N8/Kg. Altogether generating the sum of N352, 800 to the farm.
After 5 years
Therefore at the first 15 months of setting up the farm a total sum of (N 447,120+N177, 000+N352, 800) N 976, 800 is expected to be generated and as such in 5 years it will expected to generate N 976, 800 × 60/15=N 3 907 200 where 60 represents number of months in 5 years.
After 10 years
Therefore by direct deduction it is expected to generate the sum of (N 3 907 200 × 2) N 7 814 400 after 10 years of setting up the farm.
Provision for future expansion
For the purpose of continuity of the enterprise the following will be adapted as the number of years post setting up the farm progresses. The salaries of the farm workers will be reviewed from time to time commensurate to the profit made in the farm, apart from bonuses that will be paid to them during period of festivities, all these is to encourage and maintain them and to attract other people in case the need for such will arise (Figure 2).
The farm will operate as a limited liability company after about 10 years of inception, such that about 40% of the shares will sold to the farm workers or their friends or relatives for maximum productivity. In situation where excess milk is produced and there is no ready-made demand or market for it, the management will consider processing the milk to yoghurt or cheese, even if it entails mixing it with cow milk in order to overcome the stigma most people have for goat milk.
The management will also consider transporting the animals for sale to the eastern part of the country especially during festivities such as Easter and Christmas and for ready market that exists in such places [12,13].
Choosing the caprine specie (the red Sokoto breed) against any other breed is to disabuse the mind of people of the stigma they have for the animal and to make them realize that it can be equally profitable as sheep and cattle if not even more profitable when managed properly. And that the red Sokoto breed has a better genetic potential in terms of milk production and efficient feed conversion ability compared to the other breeds.
The people of my state especially the residents of Bauchi metropolis the State capital have an inherent dislike of the Caprine, therefore the animal is completely segregated and relegated to the background as such all its potentials are wasted.
With the successful take up and implementation of this enterprise I believe even the government especially at the local level or cooperative societies will be willing to invest in this kind of business. And it will properly fit into the poverty alleviation policy of many administrations.
This enterprise is worthy of implementation based on the estimate made it is expected that a sum of N 1.2 million is the take up grant and it is clearly indicated that after just about 5 years the business will generate roughly the sum of N 3.9 million and about N 7.8 million in 10 years this is just a conservative estimate.
However, subtracting the recurrent expenditures such as staff salaries, cost of purchase of drugs and vaccines, consumables such as syringes etc. of N 630, 600 × 5 years=N 3 153 000, the difference of it with the N 3 907 200 generated over the 5 years period serve as the Profit which represented as N 754 200 and therefore in 10 years the sum of (N 754 200 2) N 1 508 400 is generated as profit.
Moreover it is important to note that the values mentioned above may not necessarily represent the exact amount that may be generated they are just estimated values, as such the exact figures may likely going to be much more than what is presented here. At the end of it all I will like to categorically state that this enterprise is worth implementing.
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