alexa Glia, Next Research Brain Frontier | OMICS International
ISSN: 2168-9652
Biochemistry & Physiology: Open Access
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Glia, Next Research Brain Frontier

Soraya L Valles*
Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Valencia, Spain
*Corresponding Author : Soraya L. Valles, PhD
Department of Physiology
School of Medicine, University of Valencia
BlascoIbañez, 15.46010, Valencia, Spain
Tel: 34-96-3864646
Fax: 34-96-3864642
E-mail: [email protected]
Received November 10, 2013; Accepted November 11, 2013; Published November 15, 2013
Citation: Valles SL (2013) Glia, Next Research Brain Frontier. Biochem Physiol 2:e117. doi:10.4172/2168-9652.1000e117
Copyright: © 2013 Valles SL, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Biochemistry & Physiology: Open Access

Abstract

There are many different cells inside our brain, such as astrocytes, neurons, ependimiary cells, microglia and oligodendroglia. The role of neurons has been studied by decades because of its important interventions in cell communication in the nervous system. However other brain cells, glial cells, have been poorly studied compared to neurons. Astrocytes are more abundant than neurons in brain and in fact, they are more and more glial cells when we advanced in the phylogeny compared to neuron number. Einstein’s brain has three times more astrocytes than normal brain. So many scientists are thinking about the important role of astrocytes in memory, inflammation, oxidative stress, nutrition, cleaner brain cells, etc. Which roles of astrocytes are inside our brain and they have important works in neurogeneration, neurodegeneration and illness?

Introduction
Oxidative Stress and inflammation are elevated inmany illness producing neurodegeneration and badly neurogenesis [1-3], but their pathogenic significance remains unclear. Central nervous system has its own resident immune system, glial cells, which can serve producing supportive and nutritive roles inside brain. Also, glial cells are involve in several inflammatory processes, defending central nervous system in front of pathogens [4-6]. Normal glial functions can sometimes result in a serious and chronic neuro-inflammatory cycle that actually promotes neurodegenerative diseases, constituent a viable target for the discovery or development of neurodegenerative diseases [7-9]. Also astrocytes perhaps act protecting neurons in the mixer culture from the toxic action and this point of view needs more research investigation, perhaps, by an increase in mitochondriogenesis. They obtain a better processing of oxidative stress and an efficient inflammation control [Aguirre-Rueda et al., in peer revision]. The importance of glial cellpropagated inflammation disorders such as AD has been seen as a bystander effect, or epiphenomenon, occurring when damaged neurons develop an activation response by glial cells. Wyss Corey et al., demonstrated a phagocytosis process do it by astrocytes in the Alzheimer’s plaques [8] and also Valles et al., showed [3] antiinflammatory effects after Aβ-induction in astrocytes. Recently, authors have discovered important astrocyte actions in the brain. We need sleep because astrocytes enter the body in sleeping situation, because we need to clean our brain with minimum six hours. Astrocytes need a lot of energy to do it, so disconnect neurons and clean brain of rubbish elements [10], So who control who, astrocytes control neurons and they do not permit activation during sleeping situation. Furthermore, astrocytes control neurons in the quimio-sensible brain area, producing influx of calcium to adjacent neurons and provoking more influx of fresh air inside our alveolus to introduce more oxygen in our body and to clean carbonic hydroxide from our blood. Deficient mitochondrial respiratory chain function may have catastrophic consequences for the long-term health and survival of cells associated with dementia [8,11]. Recently Steve Goldman group from University of Rochester, EEUU, has discovered that astrocytes can control neurons to produce long term potentiation, controlling memoryastrocytes [12]. Furthermore, in 2012 was published than astrocytes will be the future of the brain research, because you know almost everything from neurons and a few information about the role of astrocytes [13] and Valles et al., pubhished an important paper about the control of Cancer by Central Nervous System via hormone production [14].
The relationship between immunologic genes and schizophrenia has been discovered recently. Our point of view has changed and now astrocytes and microglia play important roles in neurogenesis and neuro-degeneration brain. Problems with depression and with bipolar disorders are growing and the relationship with the political and crisis in the world are evident, so we need to be realist and look for diminish immunological action of genes and all research community need to replant all drugs to resolve neural illness. Glia will be in the next frontier of the brain study. We will look for its physiology and psiquiatric/psicology problems and at last to obtain the future of our healthy brain. Why research people only look for neuron works? Why don’t we investigate the role of astrocytes and glia in brain? Why evolution invented an astrocyte after neurons? Why astrocytes in differentiation and in adult life have a newcytoesqueletal protein, GFAP (glial fibrillaryacidic protein)? We need to investigate more and more looking by good ideas and as Einstein said, “you cannot said God exist or not exist, because anyone demonstrate it, only you can know the light do not exist because is only a perception of our brain, only exist light photons traveling in the universe”. So perhaps people have special receptors to note God presence and others do not have. In science many people have good ideas many of them from countries in the three world, etc., but remember, in the brain of poor people continuous evolution and Lucy was poor, pregnancy woman who start evolution of the brain many, many, many years ago.People are thinking about that; and now woman are at least in research, let’s see the future of research brain, probably people with a lot of sensibility will be the best to understand astrocytes roles, at last.
References
Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Relevant Topics

Recommended Conferences

Article Usage

  • Total views: 11577
  • [From(publication date):
    November-2013 - Jan 23, 2018]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 7824
  • PDF downloads : 3753
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2018-19
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri & Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

 
© 2008- 2018 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version