The development of each of biological functions and responses, paracrine communities and authorities took place over millions of years and how much has been formed for this is hard to say about the most important stages of the structure and function laid down in the genome of each of the cells. Therefore, the theory of pathology must include phylogenetic component [41
]. The formation of each biological function and biological reactions occurred over millions of years in the formation of the many options that, according to the biological principle of continuity in the phylogeny are formed in the process of improving what has been done in the earlier stages of phylogeny. The function of locomotion initiated the formation of a) a closed circulatory system, heart and vascular system, and b) of the heart as a central pump, c) striated, skeletal muscle, and d) adipocytes and specialized, humoral regulated adipose tissue - the PCT and e) of the INS [42
]. The biological role of the INS - providing a substrate for production of bio-energy functions of locomotion. For the purpose of which is designed to implement in vivo INS, GLU is manifestly unsuitable substrate: a) the energy value is low, b) it is hydrophilic, and c) there is no place large amounts of glycogen deposit. Therefore, the INS's attention "paid" LCD: a) they are hydrophobic, the cells can actively absorb them, and b) the energy value is high and the LCD) to deposit there in vivo can be unlimited. If GLU is difficult to deposit, you must a) oxidize it to the mitochondria in the first place and the remaining amount b) translate into a form in which you can store up GLU in saturated palmitic LCD (eg LCD), which under the action of the ANN can be converted to mono-unsaturated oleic LCD (mono-LCD). However, GLU activate oxidation in the mitochondria to the INS is not so simple.
If we are to place all the substrates oxidation by mitochondria in descending orders: a) the reaction rate constant, b) formation of acetyl-CoA, and c) the synthesis of ATP in the Krebs cycle, the following sequence:
• ketone bodies - the shortest metabolites with oil LCD 4 - β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate,
• short chain C 6 - C 10 n-LCD
• medium-C 12 and C 14 n-LCD
• 16:0 palmitic long chain n-LCD, for which specific mitochondria have conveyor
• ω-9 endogenous and exogenous ω-6 C 18:1 oleic mono-LCD, which, at the double bond (C = C) in the circuit has a high rate constant for the oxidation [46
• the latter is the GLU.
The formation of this sequence happened back in prokaryotes, mitochondria, and according to the reception of "biological chain of command" and biological "prohibition" of evolution, cannot be changed [43
ANN will strengthen not only the activated (passive) uptake by cells through the glucose transporters GLU 4 (GLYUT4), but the GLU and oxidation in mitochondria, if not in the cytosol or ketone bodies or fatty acids in the form of polar NEFA. To mitochondrial oxidation started GLU, insulin has to block lipolysis in insulin-dependent cells and lower the levels in the cytosol of the LCD, and their metabolites [44
]. In exotrophy biological response when postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia INS: a) inhibits lipolysis b) depriving mitochondria possible to oxidize ketones and short-LCD, c) facilitates cellular uptake of GLU and d) its oxidation in the mitochondria. Simultaneously, the LCD cells are deposited in the form of triglycerides to provide energy for the biological function of locomotion. INS acts only exotrophy biological response. Consequently, the INS activates GLU oxidation in cells by regulating the metabolism of the LCD, so diabetes can reasonably be called metabolic disorders LCD.
The main cause of the "inaction" of ANN is the formation in vivo physiological processes at the level of communities paracrine cells in which the phylogenetically earlier hormones activate lipolysis in cells of phylogenetically earlier interstitial tissue. These cells do not have receptors and the INS and INS have a regulatory effect on them cannot. Paracrine activation of lipolysis in the communities of cells and increase in the intracellular medium NEFA concentrations inhibits the oxidation of GLU and INS cannot do anything [45
]. The main reasons are TS: 1. alteration of biological function and gain adaptation action of thyroid hormones, growth hormone, catecholamines, glucocorticoids and estrogens which activate physiological hormone sensitive lipase in pool interstitial PCT paracrine communities increasing NEFA content in extracellular medium 2. violation of the biological function of Endoecology, "littering" the intercellular medium and large flogogenami endogenous activation of the biological response of inflammation, increased lipolysis in the interstitial tissue and increased levels of NEFA in the extracellular environment paracrine communities. However, in the central circulation, cell-cell paracrine Wednesday of each community became part of a single pool environment, in which there is increase NEFA content.
In the passive absorption of the cells and the appearance of NEFA in the cytosol, mitochondria immediately stop the oxidation of GLU and begin to oxidize NEFA [46
]. IR syndrome is formed at the level of the organism as a phylogenetically later the INS may not: a) to block lipolysis in the cells of the PCT paracrine communities in which it locally activate the phylogenetically early humoral mediators, hormones, and b) reduce the concentration in the extracellular medium ALB + NEFA, and c) stop passive cellular uptake of NEFA and d) to prevent oxidation by mitochondria stop GLU. Consideration of the etiology and pathogenesis of the most common diseases
in the human population in terms of biological functions and biological reactions in the regulation of metabolism in vivo at three phylogenetic levels, allows you to:
• To realize that the basis of the pathogenesis of diseases, the incidence of which in the human population exceeds 5.7%, is the violation of the biological function and biological reactions;
• To understand the mechanisms of formation of a community in the phylogeny of the pathogenesis of essential hypertension and IR mismatch as the regulation of blood pressure and metabolism of hydrodynamic LCD, GLU at the level of the organism and in the paracrine communities;
• To assess the diagnostic value of tests with different types of pathology in individual diseases, but in terms of biological functions and reactions microalbuminuria - the excess of filtration in the glomeruli of the passive reabsorption in the proximal tubule, elevated C-reactive protein in the blood - "littering" in the intercellular environment flogogenami vivo endogenous (exogenous pathogens) large pier. weight and biological activation of the inflammatory reaction;
• Treat diabetes, primarily as abnormalities of metabolism LCD and secondarily as pathological metabolic GLU;
• To understand the functional, clinical and diagnostic value of two phylogenetically different parts of the arterial bed, the role of blood pressure as a biological response that is involved in the implementation of many biological functions; understand the biological basis of normalization so often high blood pressure [47
According to the methodological approach of the biological chain of command in the implementation of the biological function of locomotion is the primary regulatory role is performed by the heart, proximal arterial and sympathetic autonomic nervous system. Outside the biological function of locomotion, the leading role in the regulation of hemodynamics performs phylogenetically early distal arterial bed and mechanisms of regulation at the level of the regulated community paracrine cells and parasympathetic autonomic nervous system.
To continue the improvement of medical science in the XXI century, it is desirable to form among clinicians understand that medical science is part of the general biology and human Homo sapiens - one of the species of mammals. He has exceptional intelligence, but the processes of metabolism, the degree of perfection, are inferior to many types of animals [48
]. These determined that for hundreds of millions of years of formation of the biological function of trophic ecology, with the lives of animals in sequence at different oceans of the world (one of three water and air), the influence of these factors and the body was not able to adapt to them. All the diseases that we call metabolic pandemic
, it is nothing more than the consequences (costs) continuing evolution, the organism's adaptation to the new conditions the impact of adverse factors. The main ones are those that violate the biological function of the power function of trophic ecology. The influence of adverse environmental conditions become etiologic, causes impaired biological functions and biological reactions [49
Before continuing improvements in medical science in the XXI century, it is desirable to form among clinicians understand that medical science is part of the general biology and human Homo sapiens - one of the species of mammals, which has an exceptional intellect. At the same time, biological, biochemical and physiological processes in the human body formed over tens, hundreds of millions of years of life. These processes are largely conservative and very easy to adapt to life in today's fifth world ocean. It is the most destructive to man the world's oceans - the conditions of the global impairment in the first place, the biological function of trophic ecology (power function), biological response exotrophy - external power supply. Violations occur when the active influence of "chemical weapons" the food when the power of hundreds of millions of people does not meet the conditions in which there was a formation of biologically conservative foundations metabolism, biological functions and biological reactions. However, there is no intelligence without soma and body, physical health; each individual has to think for you.
Homo sapiens their efforts to create the conditions for the emergence of diseases of civilization, and their intelligence are required to understand. The process of evolution continues, and high levels of mortality from diseases of civilization are nothing more than a biological phenomenon of extinction of populations in adapting to profound changes in the external environment. After all, Homo sapiens adapting to the conditions of the fifth world ocean, but it will require some 30 - 40 million years old. Is not it better to use biological function of intelligence and bring all their behavior in line with the biological capacity of the species Homo sapiens. We are not yet ready to admit that the main reason for the development of metabolic
pandemic is a metabolic disorder LCD, but gradually comes to an understanding of this, as well as the realization that in disorders in a population of biological functions and biological reactions, pharmaceuticals may not be effective [50