alexa Screening and Adaptation in Some Varieties of Rice under Salinity Stress (Case Study at Paluh Merbau, Deli Serdang District, North Sumatera,Indonesia)
ISSN: 2375-4338
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Screening and Adaptation in Some Varieties of Rice under Salinity Stress (Case Study at Paluh Merbau, Deli Serdang District, North Sumatera,Indonesia)

Wan Arfiani Barus1*,Abdul Rauf 2,Sengli J Damanik B2 and Rosmayati2
1Department of Agrotechnology, Amir Hamzah University, Indonesia
2Department of Agrotechnology, Sumatera Utara University, Indonesia
Corresponding Author : Wan Arfiani Barus
Department of Agrotechnology
Amir Hamzah University, Indonesia
E-mail: [email protected]
Received July 27, 2013; Accepted October 09, 2013; Published October 14, 2013
Citation: Barus WA, Rauf A, Damanik SJB, Rosmayati (2013) Screening and Adaptation in Some Varieties of Rice under Salinity Stress (Case Study at Paluh Merbau, Deli Serdang District, North Sumatera, Indonesia). J Rice Res 1:112. doi: 10.4172/jrr.1000112
Copyright: © 2013 Barus WA, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Keywords
Rice; Salinity; Adaptation; Growth
Introduction
Salinity is becoming a serious problem in several parts of the world. The saline area is three times larger than land used for agriculture [1]. Salinity is one of the key environmental factors that limit crop growth and agricultural productivity. Total area under salinity is about 953 million ha covering about 8% of the land surface [2]. Several physiological pathways, i.e. photosynthesis, respiration, nitrogen fixation and carbohydrate metabolism have been observed to be affected by high salinity [3].
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important crops in the world and is the primary stable food for over two billion people. With the rapid growth in population consuming rice and the deteriorating soil and water quality around the globe, there is an urgent need to understand the response of this important crop towards these environmental abuses. With the ultimate goal to raise rice plant with better suitability towards changing e nvironmental inputs, intensive efforts are on worldwide employing physiological, biochemical and molecular tools to perform this task.
Abiotic stress is the main factor negatively affecting crop growth and productivity worldwide. Rice plants are relatively susceptible to soil salinity as an abiotic stress [4,5]. Salt-affected soil is one of the serious abiotic stresses that cause reduced plant growth, development and productivity worldwide [6]. In Iran, salinity has already become a major deterrent to crop production, including rice. Addition of salts to water lowers its osmotic potential, resulting in decreased availability of water to root cells.
Salt stress thus exposes the plant to secondary osmotic stress, which implies that all the physiological responses, which are invoked by drought stress, can also be observed in salt stress [7]. Growth and yield reduction of crops is a serious issue in salinity prone areas of the world [8]. Water-deficit and salt affected soil are two major abiotic stresses which reduce crop productivity, especially that of rice, by more than 50% world-wide [9,10]. Salinity is one of the important abiotic stresses limiting rice productivity. The capacity to tolerate salinity is a key factor in plant productivity.
Rice, most loved cereal of Asia, feeds the majority of the world’s population. More than 90% of the world’s rice is grown and consumed in Asia. where 60% of the earth’s people and about two-thirds of the world’s poor live [11]. Green revolution helped to solve the world’s demand for food, but is not enough to meet the 21st century’s exploding population. Improved rice varieties and hybrids developed by institutes throughout the world, including IRRI, have helped to improve the quality and quantity of rice production.
About 6.5% (831 million ha) of the world’s total area (12.78 billion ha) is affected by salt in soils (FAO). Area under salt stress is on the increase due to many factors, including climate change, rise in sea levels and excessive irrigation without proper drainage in inlands, underlying rocks rich in harmful salts, etc. Vast areas of land are not utilized due to salinity and alkalinity problems.
Screening of germplasms at seedling stage is readily. Rice is the staple food of more than 50% of it provides reproductive stage. Screening under controlled rice production will be needed over that of year 2000, condition has the benefit of reduced environment effects Salinity is one of the major obstacles in increasing and the hydroponic system is free difficulties associated production in rice growing areas worldwide, which is an with soil related stress factors. The conventional methods ever-present threat to crop yield. Therefore, development of plant selection for salt tolerance are not easy because of salt tolerant varieties has been considered as one of the large effects of the environment and low narrow strategies to increase rice production.
Salinity appears to affect two plant processes, water relations and ionic relations. During initial exposure to salinity, plants experience water stress, which in turn, reduces leaf expansion. During long-term exposure to salinity, plants experience ionic stress, which can lead to premature senescence of adult leaves [12]. Salinity has three potential effects on plants:
• Lowering of the water potential
• Direct toxicity of any Na and Cl absorbed
• Interference with the uptake of essential nutrients
Materials and Methods
This experiment was conducted at Paluh Merbau, Percut Sei Tuan, Deli Serdang District, North Sumatra on January 2012 to July 2012. The region studied is geographically located in latitude 98,74850 N and longitude 3,75150 E and 1.5 m altitude. Thirty rice genotypes were used in this study, i.e Banyuasin, Batanghari, Dendang, Indragiri, Punggur, Martapura, Margasari, Siak Raya, Air Tenggulang, Lambur, Mendawak, Sei Lalan, Way Apo Buru, inpari 2, inpari 3, inpara 10, IR 42, IR 64, Ciherang, Mekongga, Fatmawati, CSR 9012, BW 267-3, IR 72593, IR 67075, IR 72049, IR 63731, IR 59418, IR 71829 dan IR 29. This research uses Completely Randomized Block Design non factorial with three replications on a plot size of 2 m×2 m.
Results and Discussions
Germination percentage
Germination percentages of some genotypes of rice are given in Table 1. As information, in seedling location, it has dhl=6.8 mmhos. In Table 1, Sei Lalan (V15) and Lambur (V19) showed have the highly germination percentage, i.e. 93% and 92%, this result showed that Sei Lalan and Lambur more tolerant than other varieties in germination phase. Based on the descriptions that have been recommended by the Rice Research Institute Sukamandi, Sei lalan is one of the varieties that are tolerant to salinity stress (dhl=up to 4 mmhos).
Evaluation of salt stress symptoms at seedling stage
By using “salt injury score” (Table 2) in rating the visual symptoms of salt toxicity are found the criteria. This scoring discriminates the highly susceptible genotype till highly tolerant genotype. Scoring was started at 21 days after sowing. A comparison of the responses of the different cultivars indicated that germination percentage was based on type of cultivar. In germination phase, Sei Lalan (V15) had the highest germination percentage.
Table 3 showed that V5 ( IR 72593), V7 (CSR 9012), V10 (IR 67075), V13 (IR 72049), V16 (BW-267-3), V17 (Mekongga), V22 (IR 63731), V26 (IR 59418), V28 (Inpari 3), V29 (IR 71829) and V30 (Way Apo Buru) had score 9. Then, some varieties got score 7, i.e: V2 (IR 29), V6 (Punggur), V20 (IR 64), V21 (Fatmawati), V23 (Inpari 2), V25 (Inpara 10) and V27 (Siak Raya). V11 ( Mendawak) and V12 ( Air Tenggulang) had score 5. V3 (Martapura), V4 (Banyuasin), V8 (Margasari), V9 (Ciherang), V14 (IR 42) and V24 (Dendang) had score 3. Sei Lalan (V15) and Dendang (V19) had score 1. From Table 3, are found ten varieties for the next observation.
Vegetative Phase
Data from Vegetative phase was showed on Table 4. The results showed that in vegetative phase of Batanghari (V4) and Ciherang (V9) had better growth than Margasari (V8) and Sei Lalan (V15). It can be seen in root volume variable and number of productive tillers. Sairam and Tyagi [7] stated that the excess amount of salt in the soil can affect plant growth and development. The process of growth, such as seed germination, seedling growth, vegetative growth and number of tillers. Salt stress had reducing effect on leaf area of vegetative phase. Furthermore, generative phase of ten varieties are showed on Table 5.
Generative Phase
Data from Generative phase was showed on Table 5 and heritability score can be seen on Table 6. Batanghari (V14) showed the best growth in the generative phase than Martapura (V3), Margasari (V8), Sei Lalan (V15) and Lambur (V19) in the parameters were observed for the percentage of empty grain, seed weight per plot and weight of 10 seeds. Low production and high percentage of empty grain can occur due to very high salt stress resulted in the absorption of water not available so vulnerable to water shortages.
Furthermore, water stress also occurs in salt stressed plants. These circumstances lead to various disorders in plants, among others, the slow flowering, abscission of flowers and empty grain. Sairam and Tyagi [7] found that excess salt in the growing media (soil) can affect plant growth and development, smaller leaf area (leaf rolling occurred) and this condition made photosyntesis process was not optimal. Heritability value of eight genotypes can be seen in Table 6. Table 6 was showed that adaptability and tolerance of plants to salt stress is influenced by the nature of the genetic.
Batanghari (V14) showed the best growth in the generative phase than Martapura (V3), Margasari (V8), Sei Lalan (V15) and Lambur (V19) in the parameters were observed for the percentage of empty grain, seed weight per plot and weight of 10 seeds. Low production and high percentage of empty grain can occur due to very high salt stress resulted in the absorption of water not available, so vulnerable to water shortages. Furthermore, water stress also occurs in salt stressed plants.
Conclusion
All of genotypes were tested in this study have decreased of growth both of germination percentage, vegetative phase and generative phase. Salinity had also a significant effect on germination percentage, vegetative phase and generative phase. Furthermore, Banyuasin (V4) and Sei Lalan (V15) have adaptability and high tolerance in saline soil.
Acknowledgement
The authors are grateful to Rice Research Institute, Sukamandi for providing rice seeds and also to the Directorate General of Higher Education Indonesia, for the financial support.
References












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