Ebola Virus Disease | OMICS International | Abstract

Immunology: Current Research
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Ebola Virus Disease

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It is also known as ebola hemorrhagic fever. It was first identified in 1976 in villages named nzara and yambuku near Ebola River in sub Saharan Africa from which it got its name. It is a viral disease of human and also animals. It kills 50 percent to 90 percent people it affected. This disease spread by direct contact and also by carrier mainly fruit bats. This disease is often confused with malaria, cholera, typhoid meningitis. World health organization reported 24 outbreaks between 1976-2013 (1,716 cases). Guinea, Sierra, Leone and Liberia of West Africa contribute for largest outbreak (24,049 cases resulting in 9,855 deaths as of march4, 2015).

It is caused by four of five virus genus of Ebola virus. They are Zaire Ebola virus, Tai forest virus (TAFV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Bundibugyo virus (BDBV). Among the four most dangerous is Zaire Ebola virus which is responsible for most of the outbreaks. The fifth virus known as reston virus cause disease in primates (animals) and not in humans. Ebola contain single stranded RNA genome. The transmission is through direct contact with affected patients and utensils recently contaminated by them. It is transmitted between animals to animal by eating the fruit partially eaten by affected animal (fruit bat) and also by direct contact with affected animal. The incubation period for this disease is between 2-21 days. The symptoms of this disease are headache, fever, joint pain, fever, feeling tired, decreased appetite. The fever is greater than 101 degree Fahrenheit. Development of maculopapular rash is very common. Internal and external bleeding may also occur from mucous membrane. Bleeding causes hematoma, bloody stool, coughing up of blood, petechiae, and whites of the eyes become red. After 7-14 days recovery begins. Most of the death is due to fluid loss causing low blood pressure. People develop antibody against Ebola which can remain for at least 10 years. People recovered from Ebola cannot transmit the disease again.

It can be diagnosed by enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA), virus isolation by cell culture, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay(RT-PCR), electron microscopy, serum neutralization test. There is no particular treatment for Ebola. However oral rehydration therapy and treatment for specific disease help to survive. This disease can be prevented and controlled by creating awareness among the people about the transmission of this disease, avoiding close contact with affected person or animal. The affected animals should be handled carefully. It should be checked whether the animal products are completely cooked before consumption, safe burial of dead and maintaining good hygiene and clean environment is also important.