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ISSN: 2167-0846

Journal of Pain & Relief
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Research Article

Prevalence Of Stigmatization And Poor Self-Esteem In Chronic Pain Patients

Hegarty D* and Wall M
Department Anaesthesia & Pain Medicine, Cork University Hospital Group, Ireland
Corresponding Author : Dr. Dominic Hegarty
Consultant in Pain Management & Neuromodulation
Department Anesthesia & Pain Medicine
Cork University Hospital, Cork, Ireland
Tel: +353 21 4922135
E-mail: [email protected]
Received January 11, 2014; Accepted February 19, 2014; Published February 21, 2014
Citation: Hegarty D, Wall M (2014) Prevalence of Stigmatization and Poor Self-esteem in Chronic Pain Patients. J Pain Relief 3:136. doi: 10.4172/2167-0846.1000136
Copyright: © 2014 Hegarty D, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

Objective: Stigma and poor self-esteem (defined as the internalized cognitive, emotional, and behavioural impact of others’ negative attitudes on a person) are associated with many chronic health conditions and have indirect but strongly negative implications for clinical prognosis. We sought to estimate the prevalence of perceived stigmatization and self-esteem in chronic pain patients and its relationship with general health markers.

Methods: All adult patients (n=160, >18 years old, chronic pain >3 months) completed a set of validated questionnaires; Stigmata Scale for Chronic Illness (SSCI), Rosenberg’s Self-esteem Scale (RSES); Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS); Brief Pain Inventory short form (BPI); and the General health survey (SF12v2). Data was recorded using Microsoft Excel and analyzed using SPSS.

Results: The mean pain intensity score (Visual analogue score (VAS)) was 6.1 ± 1.7. 77% of patients (123/160) had a lowered self-esteem (RSES score=17.2 ± 14.5) with a mean SSCI score of 50.8 ± 19.0 (normal range 24-120). An inverse relationship between (a) stigmatization and self-esteem (Pearson correlation, r=.58, p<0.001) and (b) selfesteem and pain interference (r=.48, p<0.001) was identified. A positive correlation between stigmatization and anxiety (r=.228, p<.05) and an inverse relationship between self-esteem and depression existed (r=.234, p<.05).

Conclusions: A high prevalence of stigmatization was identified in individuals experiencing chronic pain and a significant correlation exists between the type of stigma experienced, the level of pain intensity and other psychological factors including self-esteem, anxiety, and depression

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